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Millinery by Jane Loewen 1925, Chapter 4: CROWNS'''Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 4: CROWNS'''
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Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 5: STAPLE MILLINERY MATERIALS'''Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925,Chapter 5: STAPLE MILLINERY MATERIALS'''
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure111d.gif]]
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure108c.gif]]
  
[[File:AmazonBooks4Bsicmillinerystage.jpg]]
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I.MATERIALS USED
  
[[File:AmazonBooksThehatbook.gif]]
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Fabrics
  
I. FRAME FOUNDATIONS USED FOR CROWNS
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Velvets
  
Pressed crowns
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Silks
  
1. Desirable kinds of pressedcrowns
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Cotton and linen fabrics
  
Side crown foundations
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Laces
  
II. KINDS OF CROWNS
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Straw cloths
  
Cap crowns
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Braids
  
Plain oval-top crown
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Tests for quality
  
Small oval-side crown shirred on cord
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Varieties
  
Round Top Crown
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Body
  
Method of mounting
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Process of manufacture
  
Seam placement
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Tests of quality
  
Plain sectional
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Varieties
  
Kinds of sectional crowns
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Trimmings
  
Method of assembling sectional crowns
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Tests of quality
  
Section cap crown with draped side crown
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Varieties
  
Assembling
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Frames
  
Mounting the top crown
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Process of manufacture
  
Draping the side crown
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Varieties
  
Tam crowns
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Findings
  
Pitted or circular crowns
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Covering
  
Sectional tams
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Wire
  
Saddle tams
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Threads
  
Round tam with bias sides
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Liquid preparations
  
Fitted crowns
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Needles
  
Fitted or pressed crowns
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QUESTIONS
  
Draped side crown
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I. MATERIALS USED
  
Fitted top crowns
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The definitions and tests given in this lesson apply to millinery fabrics only. Thequalities desirable for hat fabrics, such as velvet or satin, are very different from thequalities desired in the same fabrics when they are to be used for dresses. Hat materialsmust be nicely finished; the velvet pile, deep; the satin, lustrous. They must be light inweight. They need have no enduring wearing qualities. There is no strain on hat materialsas there is on material for other wearing apparel.
  
Sectional crowns fitted on pressed crowns
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FABRICS
  
Soft semifitted crowns
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'''1. Velvets'''
  
Draped
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Process of manufacture. Velvet is a soft, thick fabric with a deep silk pile.The warp is woven on a cotton woof. In a very expensive quality there is a silk back, orwoof.
  
Sectional
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In weaving the warp the silk is passed over fine wires in such a way as to form rows ofloops which project from the cotton back. When the wires are withdrawn there is left afine, soft, silk pile.
  
III. OUTLINE OF KINDS OF CROWNS, ANDTHEIR APPROPRIATE BRIMS
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In uncut velvet these loops are left intact.
  
IV. HOW TO DETERMINE KINDS OF CROWNSSUITABLE TO INDIVIDUAL
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For most millinery velvet the loops are cut with a sharp tool to make what is calledcut velvet.  
  
TYPES OF FACES
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The best quality of millinery velvet is silk Lyons. The name is derived from the cityof Lyons, in France, where much of it is made. For this, first-grade silk stock, calledthe first spinning, is used.
  
What decides the kind of crown to be worn
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The trade of velvet weaving is a closed trade handed down from father to son. Velvetmanufacturers say that "a velvet loom improves with usage. It takes one hundred yearsto perfect one of the looms for the finest weaving." During the World War many ofthese looms were allowed to rust and ruin.
  
Rules for choosing crowns
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For cheaper velvets, called chap velvets, the second spinning is used. For this secondgrade of silk velvet, the knots, ravelings, and ends of silk left fromthe first spinning are boiled and dissolved in a prepared solution and respun. A cheapergrade of cotton woof is used than for the Lyons velvet.
  
For the wide face oval
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'''Tests of quality'''Millinery velvet must have a close, softnap which does not allow the woof, or back, to show through. It must be very light inweight but have body which holds it up. It should be silky in effect, showing light andshadow in such a way as to give an appearance of depth to black velvets and an effect ofmany shades of the same color to colored velvets. This effect is the result of the play oflight on the deep silk pile.
  
For the narrower face
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'''Varieties''' The varieties used for millinery are the only onesgiven.
  
For the long, thin face
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Silk Lyons velvet is used for fitted and draped hats, both large and small. It is also used for handmade flowers and appliqu~6 embroidery.
  
For the short face oval
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Chiffon or uncut velvet is really a dress fabric but is occasionally used for draped hats and often used for children's hats.
  
QUESTIONS
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Chap velvet is used for less expensive hats. It has a higher lustre than Lyons velvet and is used for juniors' and children's hats.
  
I. FRAME FOUNDATIONS USED FOR CROWNS
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Soleil or panne is Lyons velvet which is mirrored, or panned, by machine on the bias. To mirror on the bias gives a different gloss than to mirror on the straight of the material.  
  
PRESSED CROWNS
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Paon velvet is chap velvet which has been mirrored on the straight. It has a high lustre but is a cheaper and a heavier-weight material than soleil.
  
A pressed crown is the simplest foundation to use for a crown because it may be purchased ready for use. When a soft crown is desired, the top of the crown may be cut out with a razor blade after the hat is completed but before the hat is lined.
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Plush is woven of silk and wool. The weave is the same as for velvet. Only very lightweight plushes can be used for hats. Usually satin or taffeta is used in combination to keep the hat from being heavy or thick-looking.
  
'''1. Desirable kinds of pressed crowns.''' A soft pressed crown (one madeof elastic net, crinoline, or very lightweight jockey buckram) is always the mostsatisfactory, both from the point of view of comfort and of appearance.
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'''2. Silks. '''
  
Plain oval. A plain oval crown is the best foundation for most cap and section crowns.  
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Tests of quality. Tests of quality for silks in millinery are the same asthose for dress silks. None of the very thin grades of silks and satins is good. Messalinesatin or thin taffeta, for example, are not fit to use because they draw needle slitswherever a stitch is taken on a frame. Even with an interlining it is impossible to make anice hat from them.  
  
Cuff crowns. An oval pressed crown with plain or draped separate cuff around the side crown may be used for mounting a cap crown (see section II, of this chapter), and for mounting a fitted cap with a draped side (see section II, of this chapter).  
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'''Varieties of silks'''. There are, nevertheless, a number ofsilks that can be used.  
  
Shaped oval crowns. Shaped oval crowns - for example, one that is larger at the top and higher on the left side -often make good frames (or molds) over which to sew braid crowns. (See Chapter VIII, section II.)
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Crepes Crepe is a silk fabric woven with a spongy surface. Raw silk or a silk and wool mixture is used for the weaving.  
  
SIDE CROWN FOUNDATIONS
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Georgette is a very thin crepe of silk and wool. The texture, though thin, is very strong. It is used for summer hats, for transparent hats, for children's hats, for facings in straw and velvet hats, and for handmade flowers. Folds of georgette are used in embroidery designs.
  
A bias strip of elastic net or willow may be cut to fit the brim headsize; the width of this band varies from 2 to 4 inches according to the kind of crown. Start with 4 inches and cut it lower if desired. Stretch the bias frame material so that the headsize is larger around than the top of the band. After it is shaped trim the headsize edge and wire and bind it. Cut the top edge so that it slants down in a lower curve on the right side. Bind it as for a frame edge.'''FIGURE 21. Pressed Crown with Cuff Side Crown'''
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Canton crepe is a very heavy crepe with a rough surface. It is used for summer and mid-season hats and for facings in velvet hats.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure21.gif]]II. KINDS OF CROWNS
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Crepe de chine is a medium-weight, dull crepe used for summer hats, for children's hats, and for facings in straw and velvet hats. For all-over embroidery hats crepe de chine makes a good foundation.
  
CAP CROWNS
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Taffeta is used for early spring hats, for combination with straw braids, and for facings in straw and velvet hats.
  
A cap crown is a soft crown made with an oval or round top and a bias side.  
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Satin should always have a high lustre for millinery use. It is used for fall and midwinter hats and in combination with velvet and straw, both as a drape and for facings. Chiffon is a silk gauze-like material used for transparent hats and for shirred children's hats.
  
'''1. Plain oval-top crowns.''' The most commonly used cap crown has an ovaltop and a bias side which measures from 5 to 8 inches. The variation of width depends onthe amount of drape desired in the side crown.
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'''3. Cotton and linen fabrics.'''
  
The oval top may be used in two ways.  
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Tests of quality are the same as for dress goods of the same type.  
  
Long from front to back. The plain oval-top crown may be placed so that it islong from front to back, with the folds draped a little deeper on the rightside.  
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Varieties used for hats are many. Only the chief ones are listed.
  
Wide from side to side. The plain oval-top crown may be used so that itslength is from side to side. The folds of the drape are then deeper at the sides, becausethe oval brings the side crown down lower at the sides, so, that the crown stands higherin front and back than at the sides. The cap may be pushed back on the pressed crown sothat the front is much higher than the back. This draping of a cap crown is becoming to awoman with a wide face oval (see Section III of this chapter).  
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Organdies, plain and embroidered, are used for lingerie and sport hats and for handmade flowers. Linens, plain, figured, and embroidered, are used only for sport hats. The colors and textures are very lovely and lend themselves to fancy applique and stitchings.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure22.gif]]'''2. Small oval-side crownshirred on cord.''' This is often used on a hat for girl who has a small face. The top crown is so small that it is not much more than a tip. It varies in size from an oval of 4 1/2 by 3 inches to an oval of 3 by 2 1/2 inches.'''3. Round top crown'''. Occasionally a round top, a perfect circle, is used for a capcrown, usually in a semidraped soft hat.  
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Cretonnes, in figured designs in both cotton and linen, are used for sport and lingerie hats.
  
'''4. Method of mounting.''' Since a cap crown should always be soft in appearance it is usually mounted on a soft pressed crown or a bias side band of elastic net.
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'''4. Laces'''
  
'''5. Seam placement'''. The seam in the side of a cap crown should always be placed where it shows least.
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Tests of quality may be limited to appearance. A tinsel lace must not havecotton threads and must not be too heavy. Black laces should be silk, as cotton fades to adull green in the sun.  
  
In an even drape place the bias seam so that it starts at the center back and runstoward the right side. It will be less conspicuous on the right side. The hat is worntilted down on the right side. Any trimming is usually on the right side.  
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Varieties. There are three kinds of laces used in making hats.  
  
In an uneven drape the seam should always be placed where the side crown is lowest andthe seam shows least.  
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Silk laces are used in black for transparent dress hats and for trimmings. Ecru silk laces are used for lingerie dress hats.
  
When there is a side-crown trimming, the seam of the bias side may be placed so thatthe trimming covers it.  
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Cotton laces are used in ecru or in tints for trimmings on children's hats and for lingerie hats.  
  
PLAIN SECTIONAL
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Tinsel laces are used in winter for making dress hats in transparent models, for draped turbans, and for cut-out appliques on fabric hats.
  
Plain sectional crowns are semifitted soft crowns made of a number of pie- or wedge-shaped sections.
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'''5. Straw cloths.''' Straw cloths are made of various compositions, madeto look like straw. Candy cloth, visca cloth, and hair cloth are theones in greatest usage.  
  
'''1. Kinds of sectional crowns.''' The various kinds of sectional crownsare: two-section crowns, four-section crown's, six-section crowns, eight-section crowns.
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BRAIDS
  
'''2. Method of assembling sectional crowns.''' (Exact directions are alwaysgiven on each section-crown pattern.)
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'''1. Tests for quality'''. The tests for quality for braids are mainlythose of appropriateness, of beauty, and of weight. For dress hats, smooth braids with ahigh lustre are most effective. Beauty of color and texture in braid always makes for abetter looking hat. Weight is always a problem to be considered. A braid loosely wovenneeds an interlining, so it must not be both loose and heavy.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure23.gif]]'''FIGURE 23. An Unfinished Cord. '''Plain sectional crowns. The method is always to baste from the center top downto the headsize before stitching. If the material used is very soft or very lightweight,an interlining is used. Care is needed to keep the seam smooth but not stretched.  
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'''2. Varieties'''. The braids used in millinery are of many kinds.  
  
Corded sectional crown - an unfinished bias cord is used to out- line thesections (see Figure 23
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Chenille braid is a soft woolen braid woven in a variety of colors. It comes in lovely shades and is used for sport hats and for embroidery.
  
For an even number of sections - there are two methods of cording (see Figures 24and 25
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Yarn braids are used entirely for sport hats. Crowns at least may be sewn without a foundation.
  
Cording half the sections is a method used when only half the sectionsareoutlined with cord from the headsize to the center and down to the headsize again. Theyare then assembled with a plain section alternating with a corded one. This makes ne cordon each seam and each cord pointed in a V at the center top crown.
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Visca braid comes under the class of straw braids, but is really a composition. It has a high lustrous finish and is appropriate for both dress and street hats.  
  
Making a straight cord from front to back--- in this method one length of cord is runfrom front to back of the crown. One section is sewn on each side of this cord with thecentral points meeting. Any extra sections are then outlined with cord (from headsize tocenter and from the top to the headsize) and set in.
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Cellophane braid is made of a celluloid composition. It has much the same finish as patent leather and is used for dress and street hats. A combination of hair braid and cellophane braid is very effective.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure24.gif]]In case of a four-section crown only one extra cord on each side is set in from headsize to center top. For an uneven number of sections, the best method is to outline one side of each section with cord and let all cord ends meet at the center top. The ends are hidden on the seam side. It will be seen that a fine soft cord is essential.  
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Hemp braid is woven from hemp straw and is used for sport and street hats and for facings in summer fabric hats. It comes in fine stripping 1/4 to 1/16 inch wide. This is used for machine-sewn hats and for embroidery. When used for hand-sewn hats the stripping is machine stitched in rows to form a braid of 3/4 to 7/8 inch wide. It is then sewn by hand as any other braid is sewn.  
  
'''FIGURE 24. Cording a Sectional Crown'''
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Lisere braid is woven of fine wheat straw. It comes in stripping which is very narrow. This is sewn by machine for pressed-hat work. For hand-sewn hats the stripping is sewn up by machine to make a braid 1/2 to 3/4 inch wide. The finer qualities are very narrow.
  
SECTIONAL CAP CROWN WITH DRAPED SIDE CROWN
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Milan braid is woven from fine wheat straw. It derives its name from the city of Milan where it is extensively manufactured. It is used in the same way as hemp and lisere. See paragraphs above.
  
The top of the crown is made of pie-shaped sections which form a circle or an oval.  
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Hair is a transparent braid woven from a composition. There are three qualities: (1) Swiss hair, the best quality; (2) German, a medium grade; and (3) domestic, a very inferior quality. The better grade has a fine hair, a good lustre, and body. The cheaper braids are shiny, sleazy, and have not much body. Hair braid is used for transparent hats in summer and for combination with silk and taffeta on early spring hats. The latter are made on pressed frames.  
  
'''1. Assembling.''' In this type of crown the top crown is assembled withor without cords as for a plain sectional crown.
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BODY HATS
  
'''2. Mounting '''the top crown. The circle edge of the section cap thusformed is shirred and the cap is mounted on a pressed crown, the fullness evenlydistributed, and the cap sewn to the pressed crown.  
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Body hats are hats that have brim and crown woven in one.
  
'''3. Draping the side crown'''. side crown is a bias strip fittedloosely and joined in a seam.
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'''1. Process of manufacture'''. The process of manufacture varies with thekind of hat. Most of the better straws, such as panamas, leghorns, and tuscan straws, arehand-woven by native workers. Felts are made almost entirely by machinery, as are sewedbodies.
  
Seam placement. The seam is placed as for a cap crown (see section II, 5, ofthis chapter).  
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'''2. Tests of quality'''Straw bodies vary in quality with thefineness of the straw used and with the expertness of the weaver. Among felts, the bettergrades are fine and close and need little sizing. The cheaper felts are loose and coarse.A great deal of sizing is used to give them body.  
  
Draping. The side crown is draped in folds around the headsize The widthvaries from 4 to 6 inches according to the fullness desired.  
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'''3. Varieties'''
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure25.gif]]
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Felts are made of a wool or wool and cotton composition, which is subjected to beating, heating, and pressure processes. The felt composition is rolled out into sheets. Body hats are blocked from sheets of felt with specially made steel machines. Felt manufactures form extensive industries in France, Switzerland, Germany, and Belgium. The finest felts are made in France and Switzerland.
  
'''FIGURE 25.Making One Straight Cord from to The Back in a Six-Sectional Crown'''
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Beaver and velour hats are made of felts which use the fur of rabbit, beaver, and raccoon in their composition. For beaver finish fine furs are drawn through the felt by an electric process. The finest grade of velours and felts is made in Switzerland.
  
Finish. Top Edge.  
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Leghorn hats are woven by hand in Leghorn, Italy. A very fine, bearded-wheat straw is used. The town gives the hat, its name. Straw weaving is the principal industry. The finer the straw and the smoother the weaving, the better the grade of hat. Children start with coarse weaving and work up to the better grade as they grow older. The straw is woven into braid strips and these are woven into hats.  
  
The top edge may be finished in two ways:
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Tuscan is a very finely woven, golden, natural-straw-colored braid, usually made in lace-like patterns. It is sometimes woven into body hats and sometimes into braids which are sewn into body hats.
  
a. Fold finish. The edge may be turned in a fold and the fold slip-stitched to the cap.  
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Panama hats are woven by natives of Panama, China, Japan, Cuba, and many of the southern islands. A fine grass is used. The weaving is done under water. Women's hats are sized and pressed into various shapes. They are used mainly for sport hats.
  
b. Wire finish. The top edge may be turned over a wire, or corded and finished as for a flange edge (see Chapter VII, section II, under Fitted Hats).  
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Sewed bodies are straw braids sewed by machine to form soft hats mainly used for sport wear. Hemp braid is sewn with angora yarn or visca straw outlining the seams. Yarn braids are sewn with silk strips or folds. Felt is cut with a pinking machine and sewn like a braid. Silk folds are sewn up into soft body hats on a box machine which gives the effect of handwork. They make lovely sport hats.  
  
Lower or Headsize Edge. The lower or headsize edge may be finished in any oneof three ways:
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TRIMMINGS
  
a. Inside-the-crown finish. The edge may be turned up inside the crown and whip-stitched to the frame. This gives a fold finish.  
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'''1. Tests of quality'''. Tests of quality vary with the trimming. Finish,shape, fabric, quality, and good construction are the most important points. V~;herespecial points are important, they are given with the article.
  
b. Brim-fold finish. The headsize edge of the pressed crown may be sewn to the finished brim of the hat and the lower headsize edge of the side-crown drape pulled down over the crown headsize and slip-stitched to the brim.  
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'''2. Varieties'''
  
c. Crown-wire finish. The headsize edge of the pressed crown may be bound with hat material and the bias side-crown drape may be worked over a wire and finished in the same way as the top edge is finished (see section II of this chapter).
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Feathers may be roughly divided into two classes :
  
TAM CROWNS
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a. Those used in their natural state. Ostrich, pheasant, many quills, and aigrettes are dyed but are often used without further change. The plumage of the male ostrich is of better quality than that of the female. The feathers of the male have larger, longer, and more glossy fiber.
  
Tam crowns are larger than other crowns and are always soft and loose. The drape should be adjusted after the hat is complete so that the lines are becoming to the type of individual. They are all cut by patterns where seam placement and mounting directions are given.  
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b. Those made into fancies. Under this head come feathers that are mounted into wing shapes, and bird and fowl feathers that are glycerined, dyed, and mounted in fancy shapes and bands, such as peacock, ostrich, and goose.  
  
'''1. Fitted or circular crowns''' are crowns with round or oval tops and aside crown which is cut from a segment of a large circle edge.
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Flowers
  
'''2. Sectional tams''' are larger but are treated much the same as plainsectional crowns. The shapes are different in outline because the extra flare is fittedinto the same headsize as any other crown. The assembling of the sections is just the same(see section II of this chapter). See Figure 33
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The best flowers are made of linen, fine satin, silk, and velvet.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure33.gif]]
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Cheaper flowers are made from coarse cotton. Careful attention should be given to the color effects and glue construction, when choosing flowers.  
  
Six-section
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Embroideries
  
Four-section
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Chinese and much peasant embroidery come already made and ready to be appliqued on fabric and straw-cloth hats. Many fabric and cloth hats are trimmed with hand embroidery.
  
Eight-section
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Ribbons
  
Five-section.
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Ribbons are measured by the number of lignes in their width. For example, No. 9 ribbon has nine lignes, No. 12 has twelve lignes. Ribbon is used for tailored trimming, for binding, for finishes, and for handmade flowers and embroidery.  
  
'''3. Saddle tams.''' Saddle tams are shaped with a long fitted striprunning from side to side and with circular-shaped sections at front and back. See Figure35. Directions for assembling are always given in the patterns.  
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The varieties are grosgrain, satin, cire, tinsel, taffeta, silk fiber, and velvet. Each variety has hundreds of variations and patterns.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure35.gif]]
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Ornaments.
  
'''4. Round tam with bias side'''. In making this kind of tam the bias isheld a little full to give extra flare, but never enough to make shirrings at thetop-crown seam.  
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Ornaments come in many different shapes and forms. They are made of metal, celluloid, composition, glass,jet, and straw. They are used mainly on tailored hats and draped dress hats.  
  
FITTED CROWNS
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Pins
  
Fitted crowns differ from other kinds in that the different pieces are fitted and sewn separately to the pressed crown.
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Pins are made of pearl, brass, gold, jade, platinum, rhinestone, jet, and glass. They are used on many different hats, usually as a finish.  
  
'''1. Fitted or pressed crowns.''' A top piece is fitted and sewn or pastedonto the top of a pressed crown, and a plain bias side crown fitted and finished with afold or a wire finish (see section II of this chapter).
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Handwork
  
'''2. Draped side crown'''. This variety is the same as 1, but has a widerbias side. The extra width is draped in folds around the side crown. Many of the pressedcrowns now on the market have plain or folded cuff sides over which the draped side crownmay be folded. Place the bias side-crown seam where it will show least.
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Handwork trims many street and dress hats. Under this heading come embroidery, braiding, beading, ribbon work, applique, and cutwork.  
  
'''3. Fitted top crowns'''. Fitted top crowns may have a bias side crownwhich is corded in groups of three or more or which is corded at regular spaces.
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FRAMES
  
'''4. Sectional crowns fitted on pressed crowns.''' A sectional crown (seesection II) may be assembled and fitted over a pressed crown.  
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See Frames, Chapters I, II, and III.  
  
SOFT SEMIFITTED CROWNS
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'''1. Process of manufacture'''. See Frames, Chapters I, II, and III.
  
'''1. Draped.''' Under this heading come the crowns that are draped with theextra fullness cut out. Folds are laid to match on the cut edges and an unfinished cordset in.
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'''2. Varieties.''' The varieties used are wire, willow, net, and buckram
  
'''2. Sectional'''. A bias piece is fitted around a pressed crown. The loweredge is finished plain or draped in a fold. The top edge is cut in pie with a sectionpattern and the seams stitched plain or corded.
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FINDINGS
  
IV. HOW TO DETERMINE KINDS OF CROWNS SUITABLE TOINDIVIDUAL TYPES OF FACES
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'''1. Covering'''. Covering or interlining is used under many satins,crepes, silks, and straws.  
  
WHAT DECIDES THE KIND OF CROWN TO BE WORN
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Mull is a lightweight cotton material with a close weave and smooth finish.
  
The contour of the face - the proportion of the face oval - always determines the kind of crown suitable to the individual. The crown of the hat makes the complemental (top half) of the oval.  
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Crinoline is used as an interlining where body is desired. It is also cut on the bias and used for frame bindings.
  
RULES FOR CHOOSING CROWNS
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Cotton flannel is the best interlining for fabric hats and soft fabric crowns. It gives a much softer finish to the hat than a thinner covering.
  
'''1. For the wide face oval.''' The crown must never be narrower than theface at its widest point. A narrower crown makes a wide face seem wider in proportion.Wide, soft crowns are most becoming to wide faces. Four- section tams, round tams,saddle crowns, or cap crowns wide from side to side are good types.
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'''2. Wire.'''
  
'''2. For the narrower face.''' The fitted crown must never be wider thanthe face oval at its widest point. A crown too wide overshadows a narrow face until theface seems even smaller.  
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Steel wire is a heavy, sprung-steel wire covered or uncovered, which is used for edge wires on sailor brims or mushroom brims. It comes both in a round and square finish..  
  
A soft drape may be used without spoiling the proportion.  
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Cable wire is a fine steel wire covered with a padding and silk wrapping. It is used mainly for trimming braces and in machine work.
  
A soft, not too-wide crown is best for a narrow face, as cap crowns and soft six- andeight-section crowns.  
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Brace wire is more used than any other one wire. It is a silk-wrapped, medium-fine wire which is very firm. It is used for wiring frames and for facing edges.
  
'''3. For the long, thin face.''' The long, thin face must have acomparatively low, not too wide, crown. A very high or stiff crown must never be chosen.It adds and exaggerates length.  
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French wire is much like brace wire but is finer and not so stiff. It is largely used for wire-edge finishes and for many soft hats.  
  
III. OUTLINE OF KINDS OF CROWNS AND THEIR APPROPRIATEBRIMS
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Lace wire is a very fine, silk-wrapped wire used for wiring lace, ribbon bows, and for very soft sport and children's hats.  
  
OVAL OVAL CAP CAPCROWN,CROWN, 2-SEC- 4-, 6-, & CIR- SEC- SEC- LONG WIDE TION 8-SEC- CULARTIONALSADDLE-TIONAL SOFT FROM FROMCROWNS TION TAM TAM TAMFITTEDFITTEDFITTEDFRONT ToSIDE ToChapterCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNS BACK SIDE IVChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapter sec. 11 IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. sec. 11. sec. 11 sec. 11. sec. 11. sec. 11 sec. 11 sec. 11sec. 11. sec. 11.Medium-large Sailor Brim*****
+
Wire joiners are tiny steel cylinders used for joining the ends of steel-edge wires and facing wires. When wire ends are slipped into this joiner and the joiners are clamped with wire cutters, there is no chance of the wire ends slipping. A facing edge is much more finished looking when these are used.  
  
Small Sailor Brim*****
+
'''3. Threads. '''
  
Large Mushroom Brim*****
+
Geneva thread is a strong, smooth, cotton thread with a mecerized finish. It is well adapted to frame wiring and to all millinery sewing except finishes.
  
Medium Mushroom Brim.* ****
+
Sewing silk for millinery varies little from that used for dressmaking. The best grade is much stronger and better to use be- cause there are fewer breaks and fewer knots to hide.  
  
Small Mushroom Brim* ***** **
+
Embroidery threads are silk, tinsel, yarn, and fiber. Usually they are heavier than those used for other embroideries.
  
Large Poke Brim***
+
'''4. Liquid preparations. '''
  
Medium Poke Brim*****
+
Millinery glue has a great deal of dryer in it because it is chiefly used on velvets and satins which must not mar.
  
Small Poke Wide from Side to Side***
+
Shellac is a finish used on lisere and other fine, shining straws to restore their lustre after the braid has been sized or soaked.
  
Small Poke Long Front****
+
Gilt and silver preparations are used to tint flowers and to metalize wire frames for tinsel hats.
  
Medium-large Tricorn Brim***
+
Colorite is used to dye straw hats and braids.
  
Small Tricorn Brim***
+
'''5. Needles. '''
  
Large Irregular Brim*****
+
Embroidery needles with long eyes rounded at the ends are best for millinery purposes. Crewel and chenille needles are good because the eyes make large holes so that the fabric is not torn by the embroidery thread.
  
Small Irregular Brim***
+
For sewing braids ordinary milliner's needles (a long, strong needle with a large eye) Nos. 4, 5, and 6 are used.
  
Medium-large Rolled Brim*****
+
For fine work as for edge finishes and slip-stitching, Nos. 7 and 8 milliner's needles are best.
  
Small Rolled Brim*****
+
For frame work Nos. 4 and 5 milliner's needles are best adapted.
  
A very flat crown is out of proportion and makes for exaggeration.  
+
For sewing fabric on a frame Nos. 4 and 5 milliner's needles are used.
  
Soft crowns of medium height and width complement the long, thin face. Soft cap crowns,long from front to back, section cap crowns, and circle cap crowns are very good for thistype.
+
For trimming no needle is so satisfactory as a No. 4 milliner's needle.  
 
+
'''4. For the short face oval.''' The short face oval must avoid extremelyhigh crowns and extremely wide crowns. A very high crown makes the face seem shorter bycontrast. A very wide crown looks heavy and adds to the apparent width of the face.Medium-high crowns with soft, irregular width are best for this class, as soft crowns widefrom side to side and two-section crowns.  
+
  
 
QUESTIONS
 
QUESTIONS
  
1. Define a cap crown, a section crown, a tam crown, asectional cap crown.
+
1. What are the points of importance in choosingmillinery fabrics?
  
2. What is the important point in seam placement?
+
2. How is velvet woven?
  
3. Give two ways of assembling a corded sectional crown which has an evennumber of sections.
+
3. How does Lyons velvet get its name?
  
4. What principle decides the kind of crown to be worn by any individual?
+
4. What are the most undesirable qualities in straw braids?
  
5. Name the kinds of crowns becoming to four distinct types of individuals.
+
5. Define body hats.
  
6. Make five different kinds of crowns, doll-size.
+
6. How and where are leghorns woven?
  
7. Give two kinds of crowns that may be used with each of five distinct types of hats asgiven in the Outline, section IV.
+
7. How are panamas woven?
  
 +
8. What differentiates a beaver felt from other felts?
  
 +
9. Name the kinds of wire used in millinery.
  
[[BooksLowenhatsChapter5|CHAPTERV]]
+
10. Name the needles used for embroidery, straw sewing, and edge finishes.
 +
 
 +
[[BooksLowenhatsChapter6|CHAPTERVI]]
  
 
Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.  
 
Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.  
Line 311: Line 313:
 
==Product Links==
 
==Product Links==
  
[[File:AmazonBooksApassionforribbonry.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/156477211X/thecostumersmani| A Passion for Ribbonry]]  A Passion for Ribbonry
+
[[File:AmazonBooksClassicmillinerytech.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/157990016X/thecostumersmani| Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats]]  Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats
 
+
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/032500336X/thecostumersmani|Basic Millinery for the Stage]
+
 
+
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0937274739/thecostumersmani|The Hat Book : Creating Hats for Every Occasion]
+
  
[[File:AmazonBooks8Hatsahistory.jpeg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0486427463/thecostumersmani| Hats : A History of Fashion in Headwear]]  Hats : A History of Fashion in Headwear
+
[[File:AmazonBooksAcenturyofhats.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0785811133/thecostumersmani| The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century]]  The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century
  
[[File:AmazonBooksHattricks80.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1579900399/thecostumersmani| Hat Tricks : 80 Instant Makeovers That Transform Ordinary Hats into Fabulous Creations]]  Hat Tricks : 80 Instant Makeovers That Transform Ordinary Hats into Fabulous Creations
+
[[File:AmazonBooksOldfashionedribbontrimmings.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0486275213/thecostumersmani| Old-Fashioned Ribbon Trimmings and Flowers (Dover Craft Books)]]  Old-Fashioned Ribbon Trimmings and Flowers (Dover Craft Books)

Revision as of 01:18, 23 January 2014

Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 5: STAPLE MILLINERY MATERIALSMillinery by Jane Loewen, 1925,Chapter 5: STAPLE MILLINERY MATERIALS

1920sLowenhatsFigure108c.gif

I.MATERIALS USED

Fabrics

Velvets

Silks

Cotton and linen fabrics

Laces

Straw cloths

Braids

Tests for quality

Varieties

Body

Process of manufacture

Tests of quality

Varieties

Trimmings

Tests of quality

Varieties

Frames

Process of manufacture

Varieties

Findings

Covering

Wire

Threads

Liquid preparations

Needles

QUESTIONS

I. MATERIALS USED

The definitions and tests given in this lesson apply to millinery fabrics only. Thequalities desirable for hat fabrics, such as velvet or satin, are very different from thequalities desired in the same fabrics when they are to be used for dresses. Hat materialsmust be nicely finished; the velvet pile, deep; the satin, lustrous. They must be light inweight. They need have no enduring wearing qualities. There is no strain on hat materialsas there is on material for other wearing apparel.

FABRICS

1. Velvets

Process of manufacture. Velvet is a soft, thick fabric with a deep silk pile.The warp is woven on a cotton woof. In a very expensive quality there is a silk back, orwoof.

In weaving the warp the silk is passed over fine wires in such a way as to form rows ofloops which project from the cotton back. When the wires are withdrawn there is left afine, soft, silk pile.

In uncut velvet these loops are left intact.

For most millinery velvet the loops are cut with a sharp tool to make what is calledcut velvet.

The best quality of millinery velvet is silk Lyons. The name is derived from the cityof Lyons, in France, where much of it is made. For this, first-grade silk stock, calledthe first spinning, is used.

The trade of velvet weaving is a closed trade handed down from father to son. Velvetmanufacturers say that "a velvet loom improves with usage. It takes one hundred yearsto perfect one of the looms for the finest weaving." During the World War many ofthese looms were allowed to rust and ruin.

For cheaper velvets, called chap velvets, the second spinning is used. For this secondgrade of silk velvet, the knots, ravelings, and ends of silk left fromthe first spinning are boiled and dissolved in a prepared solution and respun. A cheapergrade of cotton woof is used than for the Lyons velvet.

Tests of qualityMillinery velvet must have a close, softnap which does not allow the woof, or back, to show through. It must be very light inweight but have body which holds it up. It should be silky in effect, showing light andshadow in such a way as to give an appearance of depth to black velvets and an effect ofmany shades of the same color to colored velvets. This effect is the result of the play oflight on the deep silk pile.

Varieties The varieties used for millinery are the only onesgiven.

Silk Lyons velvet is used for fitted and draped hats, both large and small. It is also used for handmade flowers and appliqu~6 embroidery.

Chiffon or uncut velvet is really a dress fabric but is occasionally used for draped hats and often used for children's hats.

Chap velvet is used for less expensive hats. It has a higher lustre than Lyons velvet and is used for juniors' and children's hats.

Soleil or panne is Lyons velvet which is mirrored, or panned, by machine on the bias. To mirror on the bias gives a different gloss than to mirror on the straight of the material.

Paon velvet is chap velvet which has been mirrored on the straight. It has a high lustre but is a cheaper and a heavier-weight material than soleil.

Plush is woven of silk and wool. The weave is the same as for velvet. Only very lightweight plushes can be used for hats. Usually satin or taffeta is used in combination to keep the hat from being heavy or thick-looking.

2. Silks.

Tests of quality. Tests of quality for silks in millinery are the same asthose for dress silks. None of the very thin grades of silks and satins is good. Messalinesatin or thin taffeta, for example, are not fit to use because they draw needle slitswherever a stitch is taken on a frame. Even with an interlining it is impossible to make anice hat from them.

Varieties of silks. There are, nevertheless, a number ofsilks that can be used.

Crepes Crepe is a silk fabric woven with a spongy surface. Raw silk or a silk and wool mixture is used for the weaving.

Georgette is a very thin crepe of silk and wool. The texture, though thin, is very strong. It is used for summer hats, for transparent hats, for children's hats, for facings in straw and velvet hats, and for handmade flowers. Folds of georgette are used in embroidery designs.

Canton crepe is a very heavy crepe with a rough surface. It is used for summer and mid-season hats and for facings in velvet hats.

Crepe de chine is a medium-weight, dull crepe used for summer hats, for children's hats, and for facings in straw and velvet hats. For all-over embroidery hats crepe de chine makes a good foundation.

Taffeta is used for early spring hats, for combination with straw braids, and for facings in straw and velvet hats.

Satin should always have a high lustre for millinery use. It is used for fall and midwinter hats and in combination with velvet and straw, both as a drape and for facings. Chiffon is a silk gauze-like material used for transparent hats and for shirred children's hats.

3. Cotton and linen fabrics.

Tests of quality are the same as for dress goods of the same type.

Varieties used for hats are many. Only the chief ones are listed.

Organdies, plain and embroidered, are used for lingerie and sport hats and for handmade flowers. Linens, plain, figured, and embroidered, are used only for sport hats. The colors and textures are very lovely and lend themselves to fancy applique and stitchings.

Cretonnes, in figured designs in both cotton and linen, are used for sport and lingerie hats.

4. Laces

Tests of quality may be limited to appearance. A tinsel lace must not havecotton threads and must not be too heavy. Black laces should be silk, as cotton fades to adull green in the sun.

Varieties. There are three kinds of laces used in making hats.

Silk laces are used in black for transparent dress hats and for trimmings. Ecru silk laces are used for lingerie dress hats.

Cotton laces are used in ecru or in tints for trimmings on children's hats and for lingerie hats.

Tinsel laces are used in winter for making dress hats in transparent models, for draped turbans, and for cut-out appliques on fabric hats.

5. Straw cloths. Straw cloths are made of various compositions, madeto look like straw. Candy cloth, visca cloth, and hair cloth are theones in greatest usage.

BRAIDS

1. Tests for quality. The tests for quality for braids are mainlythose of appropriateness, of beauty, and of weight. For dress hats, smooth braids with ahigh lustre are most effective. Beauty of color and texture in braid always makes for abetter looking hat. Weight is always a problem to be considered. A braid loosely wovenneeds an interlining, so it must not be both loose and heavy.

2. Varieties. The braids used in millinery are of many kinds.

Chenille braid is a soft woolen braid woven in a variety of colors. It comes in lovely shades and is used for sport hats and for embroidery.

Yarn braids are used entirely for sport hats. Crowns at least may be sewn without a foundation.

Visca braid comes under the class of straw braids, but is really a composition. It has a high lustrous finish and is appropriate for both dress and street hats.

Cellophane braid is made of a celluloid composition. It has much the same finish as patent leather and is used for dress and street hats. A combination of hair braid and cellophane braid is very effective.

Hemp braid is woven from hemp straw and is used for sport and street hats and for facings in summer fabric hats. It comes in fine stripping 1/4 to 1/16 inch wide. This is used for machine-sewn hats and for embroidery. When used for hand-sewn hats the stripping is machine stitched in rows to form a braid of 3/4 to 7/8 inch wide. It is then sewn by hand as any other braid is sewn.

Lisere braid is woven of fine wheat straw. It comes in stripping which is very narrow. This is sewn by machine for pressed-hat work. For hand-sewn hats the stripping is sewn up by machine to make a braid 1/2 to 3/4 inch wide. The finer qualities are very narrow.

Milan braid is woven from fine wheat straw. It derives its name from the city of Milan where it is extensively manufactured. It is used in the same way as hemp and lisere. See paragraphs above.

Hair is a transparent braid woven from a composition. There are three qualities: (1) Swiss hair, the best quality; (2) German, a medium grade; and (3) domestic, a very inferior quality. The better grade has a fine hair, a good lustre, and body. The cheaper braids are shiny, sleazy, and have not much body. Hair braid is used for transparent hats in summer and for combination with silk and taffeta on early spring hats. The latter are made on pressed frames.

BODY HATS

Body hats are hats that have brim and crown woven in one.

1. Process of manufacture. The process of manufacture varies with thekind of hat. Most of the better straws, such as panamas, leghorns, and tuscan straws, arehand-woven by native workers. Felts are made almost entirely by machinery, as are sewedbodies.

2. Tests of qualityStraw bodies vary in quality with thefineness of the straw used and with the expertness of the weaver. Among felts, the bettergrades are fine and close and need little sizing. The cheaper felts are loose and coarse.A great deal of sizing is used to give them body.

3. Varieties

Felts are made of a wool or wool and cotton composition, which is subjected to beating, heating, and pressure processes. The felt composition is rolled out into sheets. Body hats are blocked from sheets of felt with specially made steel machines. Felt manufactures form extensive industries in France, Switzerland, Germany, and Belgium. The finest felts are made in France and Switzerland.

Beaver and velour hats are made of felts which use the fur of rabbit, beaver, and raccoon in their composition. For beaver finish fine furs are drawn through the felt by an electric process. The finest grade of velours and felts is made in Switzerland.

Leghorn hats are woven by hand in Leghorn, Italy. A very fine, bearded-wheat straw is used. The town gives the hat, its name. Straw weaving is the principal industry. The finer the straw and the smoother the weaving, the better the grade of hat. Children start with coarse weaving and work up to the better grade as they grow older. The straw is woven into braid strips and these are woven into hats.

Tuscan is a very finely woven, golden, natural-straw-colored braid, usually made in lace-like patterns. It is sometimes woven into body hats and sometimes into braids which are sewn into body hats.

Panama hats are woven by natives of Panama, China, Japan, Cuba, and many of the southern islands. A fine grass is used. The weaving is done under water. Women's hats are sized and pressed into various shapes. They are used mainly for sport hats.

Sewed bodies are straw braids sewed by machine to form soft hats mainly used for sport wear. Hemp braid is sewn with angora yarn or visca straw outlining the seams. Yarn braids are sewn with silk strips or folds. Felt is cut with a pinking machine and sewn like a braid. Silk folds are sewn up into soft body hats on a box machine which gives the effect of handwork. They make lovely sport hats.

TRIMMINGS

1. Tests of quality. Tests of quality vary with the trimming. Finish,shape, fabric, quality, and good construction are the most important points. V~;herespecial points are important, they are given with the article.

2. Varieties

Feathers may be roughly divided into two classes :

a. Those used in their natural state. Ostrich, pheasant, many quills, and aigrettes are dyed but are often used without further change. The plumage of the male ostrich is of better quality than that of the female. The feathers of the male have larger, longer, and more glossy fiber.

b. Those made into fancies. Under this head come feathers that are mounted into wing shapes, and bird and fowl feathers that are glycerined, dyed, and mounted in fancy shapes and bands, such as peacock, ostrich, and goose.

Flowers

The best flowers are made of linen, fine satin, silk, and velvet.

Cheaper flowers are made from coarse cotton. Careful attention should be given to the color effects and glue construction, when choosing flowers.

Embroideries

Chinese and much peasant embroidery come already made and ready to be appliqued on fabric and straw-cloth hats. Many fabric and cloth hats are trimmed with hand embroidery.

Ribbons

Ribbons are measured by the number of lignes in their width. For example, No. 9 ribbon has nine lignes, No. 12 has twelve lignes. Ribbon is used for tailored trimming, for binding, for finishes, and for handmade flowers and embroidery.

The varieties are grosgrain, satin, cire, tinsel, taffeta, silk fiber, and velvet. Each variety has hundreds of variations and patterns.

Ornaments.

Ornaments come in many different shapes and forms. They are made of metal, celluloid, composition, glass,jet, and straw. They are used mainly on tailored hats and draped dress hats.

Pins

Pins are made of pearl, brass, gold, jade, platinum, rhinestone, jet, and glass. They are used on many different hats, usually as a finish.

Handwork

Handwork trims many street and dress hats. Under this heading come embroidery, braiding, beading, ribbon work, applique, and cutwork.

FRAMES

See Frames, Chapters I, II, and III.

1. Process of manufacture. See Frames, Chapters I, II, and III.

2. Varieties. The varieties used are wire, willow, net, and buckram

FINDINGS

1. Covering. Covering or interlining is used under many satins,crepes, silks, and straws.

Mull is a lightweight cotton material with a close weave and smooth finish.

Crinoline is used as an interlining where body is desired. It is also cut on the bias and used for frame bindings.

Cotton flannel is the best interlining for fabric hats and soft fabric crowns. It gives a much softer finish to the hat than a thinner covering.

2. Wire.

Steel wire is a heavy, sprung-steel wire covered or uncovered, which is used for edge wires on sailor brims or mushroom brims. It comes both in a round and square finish..

Cable wire is a fine steel wire covered with a padding and silk wrapping. It is used mainly for trimming braces and in machine work.

Brace wire is more used than any other one wire. It is a silk-wrapped, medium-fine wire which is very firm. It is used for wiring frames and for facing edges.

French wire is much like brace wire but is finer and not so stiff. It is largely used for wire-edge finishes and for many soft hats.

Lace wire is a very fine, silk-wrapped wire used for wiring lace, ribbon bows, and for very soft sport and children's hats.

Wire joiners are tiny steel cylinders used for joining the ends of steel-edge wires and facing wires. When wire ends are slipped into this joiner and the joiners are clamped with wire cutters, there is no chance of the wire ends slipping. A facing edge is much more finished looking when these are used.

3. Threads.

Geneva thread is a strong, smooth, cotton thread with a mecerized finish. It is well adapted to frame wiring and to all millinery sewing except finishes.

Sewing silk for millinery varies little from that used for dressmaking. The best grade is much stronger and better to use be- cause there are fewer breaks and fewer knots to hide.

Embroidery threads are silk, tinsel, yarn, and fiber. Usually they are heavier than those used for other embroideries.

4. Liquid preparations.

Millinery glue has a great deal of dryer in it because it is chiefly used on velvets and satins which must not mar.

Shellac is a finish used on lisere and other fine, shining straws to restore their lustre after the braid has been sized or soaked.

Gilt and silver preparations are used to tint flowers and to metalize wire frames for tinsel hats.

Colorite is used to dye straw hats and braids.

5. Needles.

Embroidery needles with long eyes rounded at the ends are best for millinery purposes. Crewel and chenille needles are good because the eyes make large holes so that the fabric is not torn by the embroidery thread.

For sewing braids ordinary milliner's needles (a long, strong needle with a large eye) Nos. 4, 5, and 6 are used.

For fine work as for edge finishes and slip-stitching, Nos. 7 and 8 milliner's needles are best.

For frame work Nos. 4 and 5 milliner's needles are best adapted.

For sewing fabric on a frame Nos. 4 and 5 milliner's needles are used.

For trimming no needle is so satisfactory as a No. 4 milliner's needle.

QUESTIONS

1. What are the points of importance in choosingmillinery fabrics?

2. How is velvet woven?

3. How does Lyons velvet get its name?

4. What are the most undesirable qualities in straw braids?

5. Define body hats.

6. How and where are leghorns woven?

7. How are panamas woven?

8. What differentiates a beaver felt from other felts?

9. Name the kinds of wire used in millinery.

10. Name the needles used for embroidery, straw sewing, and edge finishes.

CHAPTERVI

Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.

Product Links

Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats

The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century

Old-Fashioned Ribbon Trimmings and Flowers (Dover Craft Books) Old-Fashioned Ribbon Trimmings and Flowers (Dover Craft Books)

"The Costumer's Manifesto"
by Tara Maginnis