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Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 2: MOLDED FRAMES'''Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 2: MOLDEDFRAMES'''
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Millinery by Jane Loewen 1925, Chapter 4: CROWNS'''Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 4: CROWNS'''
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure99.gif]]
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure111d.gif]]
  
MOLDED FRAMES
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[[File:AmazonBooks4Bsicmillinerystage.jpg]]
  
I. MOLDED OR PRESSED FRAMES
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[[File:AmazonBooksThehatbook.gif]]
  
Process of manufacture
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I. FRAME FOUNDATIONS USED FOR CROWNS
  
Cost of manufacture
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Pressed crowns
  
Advantages of using a pressed frame
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1. Desirable kinds of pressedcrowns
  
Adjustment of pressed frame
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Side crown foundations
  
To adjust the headsize
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II. KINDS OF CROWNS
  
To make a mushroom from a sailor
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Cap crowns
  
To make a poke from a mushroom
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Plain oval-top crown
  
To use a pattern on a pressed frame
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Small oval-side crown shirred on cord
  
I I. HAND-MOLDED FRAMES
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Round Top Crown
  
Frames of various materials stretchedon wire
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Method of mounting
  
Willow
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Seam placement
  
Buckram
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Plain sectional
  
Jockey
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Kinds of sectional crowns
  
Elastic net
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Method of assembling sectional crowns
  
Rice net or cape net
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Section cap crown with draped side crown
  
Crinoline
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Assembling
  
Process of making a stretched frame
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Mounting the top crown
  
Soaking frame fabric in water
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Draping the side crown
  
Pinning frame fabric to wire frame
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Tam crowns
  
Drying frame fabric on the frame
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Pitted or circular crowns
  
Removing frame fabric from the mold
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Sectional tams
  
How to give variety to shapes stretched on the same frame
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Saddle tams
  
How to wire a frame
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Round tam with bias sides
  
I I I. BIAS DRY-MOLDED FRAMES
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Fitted crowns
  
When frames may be molded in this way
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Fitted or pressed crowns
  
Processes
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Draped side crown
  
Frame molding in the hand
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Fitted top crowns
  
Dry molding over a frame
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Sectional crowns fitted on pressed crowns
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 +
Soft semifitted crowns
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 +
Draped
 +
 
 +
Sectional
 +
 
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III. OUTLINE OF KINDS OF CROWNS, ANDTHEIR APPROPRIATE BRIMS
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 +
IV. HOW TO DETERMINE KINDS OF CROWNSSUITABLE TO INDIVIDUAL
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 +
TYPES OF FACES
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 +
What decides the kind of crown to be worn
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 +
Rules for choosing crowns
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For the wide face oval
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 +
For the narrower face
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For the long, thin face
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 +
For the short face oval
  
 
QUESTIONS
 
QUESTIONS
  
'''CHAPTER II '''
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I. FRAME FOUNDATIONS USED FOR CROWNS
  
I. MOLDED ORPRESSED FRAMES
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PRESSED CROWNS
  
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE
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A pressed crown is the simplest foundation to use for a crown because it may be purchased ready for use. When a soft crown is desired, the top of the crown may be cut out with a razor blade after the hat is completed but before the hat is lined.
  
The original model for a pressed frame is a wire frame made by the designer (seeChapter I, section I). A model which is to be used for a manufacturer's mold must be avery firm frame closely braced, with any roll or bend perfectly outlined. For an irregularshape an extra, straight brace is usually added between each of the eight ordinarily used,making sixteen straight brace wires. The round braces should be about 1/2 inchapart. The wire model now goes to the molding room, where the block makers make a plastercast or mold from it.  
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'''1. Desirable kinds of pressed crowns.''' A soft pressed crown (one madeof elastic net, crinoline, or very lightweight jockey buckram) is always the mostsatisfactory, both from the point of view of comfort and of appearance.  
  
From the plaster cast a wooden mold is whittled or carved. This wooden block is kept instock, as it may be used for shaping straw shapes as they are sewn by makers before sizingand blocking. From the wooden block an hydraulic steel die is made. This consists of twoforms, upper and lower, which fit together like an acorn in its cup. In making the pressedframe buckram or net is soaked in water or a sizing solution and stretched over the heatedlower steel die. The top half of the die is clamped down over it and left until the framematerial is thoroughly dry. At least two men are required to operate this die, or pressmachine. After the frame is pressed, the rough edges extending beyond the die must betrimmed, the headsize cut out, and the edge wired and bound by machine.  
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Plain oval. A plain oval crown is the best foundation for most cap and section crowns.  
  
COST OF MANUFACTURE
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Cuff crowns. An oval pressed crown with plain or draped separate cuff around the side crown may be used for mounting a cap crown (see section II, of this chapter), and for mounting a fitted cap with a draped side (see section II, of this chapter).
  
Pressed crowns are made in much the same way as brims. After all the expensive processof mold-making, two men are required to operate the machine on which the frames arepressed. On the average, the first frame made on an hydraulic die costs from $300 to $600.It may readily be seen that an enormous number of frames must be sold before the originalcost is covered. In other words, the thousands of frames that must be sold from one dietend to make the shape a common one. Producers of exclusive millinery prefer to makehand-molded frames or to change the shape of the French frame in order to differentiateit.  
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Shaped oval crowns. Shaped oval crowns - for example, one that is larger at the top and higher on the left side -often make good frames (or molds) over which to sew braid crowns. (See Chapter VIII, section II.)
  
ADVANTAGES OF USING A PRESSED FRAME
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SIDE CROWN FOUNDATIONS
  
There are a number of advantages in using a pressed frame. Much expensive labor issaved. It takes almost as much time to prepare a hand-blocked frame as it takes to makethe hat. The cost factor to the hat manufacturer is much less for a machine frame. Themachine frame will stand more unskilled handling than a hand-molded frame. The pressedframe has a smoother and more finished appearance than a handmade frame. To theuninitiated home milliner the hand-modeled frame often seems unfinished and imperfect.They see the rough-appearing surface rather than its beauty of line. Pressed frames may bepurchased from the millinery departments of the large department stores, from thebetter of the $ .50 and $1 stores, and from many of the mail-order houses.  
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A bias strip of elastic net or willow may be cut to fit the brim headsize; the width of this band varies from 2 to 4 inches according to the kind of crown. Start with 4 inches and cut it lower if desired. Stretch the bias frame material so that the headsize is larger around than the top of the band. After it is shaped trim the headsize edge and wire and bind it. Cut the top edge so that it slants down in a lower curve on the right side. Bind it as for a frame edge.'''FIGURE 21. Pressed Crown with Cuff Side Crown'''
  
ADJUSTMENT OF PRESSED FRAME
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure21.gif]]II. KINDS OF CROWNS
  
The average pressed shape should be purchased with the idea of changing it to suit theindividual before using it.
+
CAP CROWNS
  
'''1. To adjust the headsize'''. The headsize may be made larger by slashingthe brim from headsize to edge and inserting a piece of buckram or elastic net. Rip theedge binding and the wire where it is lapped. Pin in the necessary piece ofmaterial. Try on the frame. Adjust the size. Bend the set-in piece at the headsize as theframe headsize is bent. Sew the seams firmly by machine or with a tight backstitch.Replace the edge wire with binding. To make the headsize smaller rip the binding and edgewire joining. slash from edge to headsize and lap until the headsize fits. If the frame isa great deal too large, two slashes - one at the front and one at the back - arenecessary. Too much lapping will throw. the frame out ofshape.
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A cap crown is a soft crown made with an oval or round top and a bias side.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure8.gif]]
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'''1. Plain oval-top crowns.''' The most commonly used cap crown has an ovaltop and a bias side which measures from 5 to 8 inches. The variation of width depends onthe amount of drape desired in the side crown.  
  
'''Figure 8. To Make a Poke Brim from a Mushroom Frame'''Illustration a is a plain mushroom brim from which a poke may be cut. In b note the lapped seam C and the dotted line AB for cutting the front.
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The oval top may be used in two ways.  
  
'''2. To make a mushroom from a sailor.''' To make a mushroom from astraight sailor brim cut the brim at the back and front from edge wire to headsize,ripping the edge binding and edge wire. Make a seam which laps very little at theheadsize, but a great deal more at the edge. Taking from the edge and not from theheadsize is what gives the mushroom effect. Trim some width of brim from the front andmore from the back. The conventional mushroom needs to be proportionately narrower infront than a sailor, because when a frame droops it hides the face. A narrow back (seeFigure 8) is always better because, first, a wide drooping effect makes thick-lookingshoulders, and, second, because it interferes with comfort by knocking against coatcollars, car windows, and seat backs.
+
Long from front to back. The plain oval-top crown may be placed so that it islong from front to back, with the folds draped a little deeper on the rightside.  
  
'''3. To make a poke from a mushroom.''' This process is much the same asabove, because the frame is already mushroom. Rip the binding and edge wire. Cut the backfrom edge to headsize. Slant the seam so that the edge laps from one to two inches and theheadsize laps only l/4 inch.
+
Wide from side to side. The plain oval-top crown may be used so that itslength is from side to side. The folds of the drape are then deeper at the sides, becausethe oval brings the side crown down lower at the sides, so, that the crown stands higherin front and back than at the sides. The cap may be pushed back on the pressed crown sothat the front is much higher than the back. This draping of a cap crown is becoming to awoman with a wide face oval (see Section III of this chapter).  
  
'''4. To use a pattern on a pressed frame.''' Many of the mushroom-hatpatterns may be cut from an ordinary pressed-sailor or mushroom frame. Cut off theheadsize slashes of the pattern on the line marked "headsize." Pin thepattern onto the mushroom brim. Mark the correct edge and cut. This does away with thenecessity of wiring a headsize and with the bother of looking for correct frame material.The original edge binding may be replaced. Silk brace wire is more satisfactory for theedge wire. Poke patterns may be cut from mushroom frames in the same way. The importantthing is to get the same slant and the same proportion as the hat pattern so that the samepattern may be used to cut the hat materials.  
+
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure22.gif]]'''2. Small oval-side crownshirred on cord.''' This is often used on a hat for girl who has a small face. The top crown is so small that it is not much more than a tip. It varies in size from an oval of 4 1/2 by 3 inches to an oval of 3 by 2 1/2 inches.'''3. Round top crown'''. Occasionally a round top, a perfect circle, is used for a capcrown, usually in a semidraped soft hat.  
  
I I. HAND-MOLDED FRAMES
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'''4. Method of mounting.''' Since a cap crown should always be soft in appearance it is usually mounted on a soft pressed crown or a bias side band of elastic net.  
  
FRAMES OF VARIOUS MATERIAL STRETCHED ON WIRE
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'''5. Seam placement'''. The seam in the side of a cap crown should always be placed where it shows least.
  
There are a number of frame materials that may satisfactorily be used for stretchingframes. The ones most used are willow, buckram, jockey, elastic net, rice net, andcrinoline.  
+
In an even drape place the bias seam so that it starts at the center back and runstoward the right side. It will be less conspicuous on the right side. The hat is worntilted down on the right side. Any trimming is usually on the right side.  
  
'''Willow:''' See Chapter I, section I.
+
In an uneven drape the seam should always be placed where the side crown is lowest andthe seam shows least.  
  
'''Buckram:''' See Chapter I, section I.  
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When there is a side-crown trimming, the seam of the bias side may be placed so thatthe trimming covers it.  
  
'''Jockey:''' See Chapter I, section I. '''Elastic net:'''See Chapter I, section I. '''Rice net''' is a frame material which is as much anet as wire window screening. A thread net held together by sizing (or starch) wouldproperly define it. Cape net is the same thing with finer mesh. Rice net is used forstretching soft crowns and for small brims of very soft ribbon or braid sport hats. Itmakes a softer frame than elastic net. It is sometimes used with a thickness of crinoline.Crinoline is used to stretch soft tam crowns, baby hats, old ladies' bonnets, and withrice net for larger hats. When crinoline and rice net are used together the two materialsare stretched one over the other, pinned separately, but dried and removed together. Thesizing sticks them together so that they hold nicely.
+
PLAIN SECTIONAL
  
PROCESS OF MAKING A STRETCHED FRAME
+
Plain sectional crowns are semifitted soft crowns made of a number of pie- or wedge-shaped sections.
  
'''1. Soaking frame fabric in water.''' The first step in stretching ahand-molded frame is to soak the frame material to be used. Each of the fabrics mentionedunder section II of this chapter has a great deal of sizing. This needs only to be wet tobecome pliable. Then it may be stretched over any desired frame and it will dry in thatshape.
+
'''1. Kinds of sectional crowns.''' The various kinds of sectional crownsare: two-section crowns, four-section crown's, six-section crowns, eight-section crowns.
  
'''2. Pinning frame fabric to the wire frame.''' Start pinning at the fronton the edge wire. Use a bias corner of the willow. Pin to first one side of the brim, thento the other. Smooth the wet fabric over the wire frame, adding first a pin at the edgewire, then one at the headsize. Cut out a small headsize circle. Slash the materialat the headsize to the lower headsize wire at intervals of 1/2 inch. Do not slash belowthe lower headsize wire. Smooth all fullness out by pulling it out at the edge andheadsize and pushing it backward to the seam. Trim the headsize slashes, leaving onlyenough to pin over the top headsize wire. Do not bend the material over the edge wire.Allow it to extend beyond the wire. Place pins at intervals of one inch.  
+
'''2. Method of assembling sectional crowns.''' (Exact directions are alwaysgiven on each section-crown pattern.)
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure9.gif]]'''FIGURE 9. Pinning the Frame Fabric to the Wire Frame. '''Be careful not to pull the frame too tightly between the straight brace wires, or the edge wire will lose its contour. There will be an angle on each straight brace at the edge wire. '''3. Drying frame fabric on the frame. '''Hang the stretched frame up to dry above a hot radiator or in a window, if you want it to dry quickly. A good idea for class work is to stretch the frames in one lesson that are to be used for the next day. Then they may stand overnight. A frame must be thoroughly dried before it is removed from the wire mold
+
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure23.gif]]'''FIGURE 23. An Unfinished Cord. '''Plain sectional crowns. The method is always to baste from the center top downto the headsize before stitching. If the material used is very soft or very lightweight,an interlining is used. Care is needed to keep the seam smooth but not stretched.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure10.gif]]'''FIGURE 10. Original Frame. A Rolled Brim Made from the Dimensions Given in Chapter I, Section IV'''
+
Corded sectional crown - an unfinished bias cord is used to out- line thesections (see Figure 23
  
'''4. Removing fabric frame from the mold.''' When the frame isthoroughly dry, mark edge wire, headsize wire, and seam with a pencil. Pull out the pinsfrom edge and headsize. Place them in a separate box to be used for frames only. Thestarch on them will mark silk or velvet. Loosen the frame carefully at both edge andheadsize.
+
For an even number of sections - there are two methods of cording (see Figures 24and 25
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure11.gif]]'''FIGURE 11. The Same Frame Made into a Tricorn. '''Remove a little at a time so as not to stretch it out of shape. Trim the back seam andlap it as it was marked if the headsize is the correct size. The headsize may be adjustedas for a pressed brim (see Chapter II, section I). Cut headsize and wire edge at thepencil mark.  
+
Cording half the sections is a method used when only half the sectionsareoutlined with cord from the headsize to the center and down to the headsize again. Theyare then assembled with a plain section alternating with a corded one. This makes ne cordon each seam and each cord pointed in a V at the center top crown.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure12.gif]]'''FIGURE 12. The Frame Made into a Square-Edge Tricorn. 5. How to give variety to shapes stretched on the same frame.''' If awire mold has a good headsize roll as.well as a becoming brim line, it may be changed in avariety of ways.  
+
Making a straight cord from front to back--- in this method one length of cord is runfrom front to back of the crown. One section is sewn on each side of this cord with thecentral points meeting. Any extra sections are then outlined with cord (from headsize tocenter and from the top to the headsize) and set in.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure13.gif]]'''FIGURE 13. Finishing the Headsize with Ribbon Wire. '''The brim may be merely cut smaller. It may be slashed at the side, or it may be cut togive an entirely different effect (see illustration, Figures 11 and 12).
+
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure24.gif]]In case of a four-section crown only one extra cord on each side is set in from headsize to center top. For an uneven number of sections, the best method is to outline one side of each section with cord and let all cord ends meet at the center top. The ends are hidden on the seam side. It will be seen that a fine soft cord is essential.  
  
'''6. To wire a frame.''' For the headsize, cut a half-inch bias band of dryframe material. Join this in a circle the same size as the brim headsize. Wire the lowerheadsize with brace wire, using a blanket stitch. Lap the ends of the wire two inches.Shape the circle of frame material and wire into an oval. Slip this over the brim headsizewith the unwired edge up. Sew the oval to the slashes, using two rows of backstitching,one just above the wire and one at the top edge. Straighten the wire for the edge byrunning the thumb and forefinger over it lengthwise, using the cushion part of the finger,not the tips. When the curve is thus worked out of the wire, buttonhole it to the top edgeof the frame (edge-wire Figure 18), taking very tight stitches about three fourths of aninch long and only one sixteenth of an inch in from the edge. Lap the ends of the wire twoand one-half inches and sew down firmly. Bind the edge with a three-fourths-inch biasstrip of muslin or flannel. Sew with long, tight, running stitches and stretch.
+
'''FIGURE 24. Cording a Sectional Crown'''
  
'''I I I. BIAS DRY-MOLDED FRAMES'''
+
SECTIONAL CAP CROWN WITH DRAPED SIDE CROWN
  
WHEN FRAMES MAY BE MOLDED THIS WAY
+
The top of the crown is made of pie-shaped sections which form a circle or an oval.
  
If a frame turns up straight from the face instead of flaring out in a wide brim, thereis less sewing in fitting the material. Often a bias may be stretched to fit it. A chinchin sailor, a rolled sailor, and many turbans may be stretched from a bias of elastic net,soft willow, or double crinoline. If a frame can be stretched without wetting thematerial, the process is not only much shorter, because of the soaking and drying processeliminated, but it is much more tidy. The soaking method necessitates the use of manythicknesses of newspaper or rubber work-aprons to protect dresses from wet framematerials.  
+
'''1. Assembling.''' In this type of crown the top crown is assembled withor without cords as for a plain sectional crown.
  
PROCESSES
+
'''2. Mounting '''the top crown. The circle edge of the section cap thusformed is shirred and the cap is mounted on a pressed crown, the fullness evenlydistributed, and the cap sewn to the pressed crown.
  
'''1. Frame molding in the hand'''. There are wonderful possibilities formaking rolled brims in the hand without a mold. Make a half-inch willow headsize band asfor a stretched frame, or use a band of ribbon wire. Sew one edge of bias elastic net (thewidth determined by the height or width of the hat brim) inside the headsize. Curve thebias upward as you sew and crowd the material close to make it roll. Elastic net ispreferable, but soft willow answers the purpose. If width at the sides is desired, or apoint or decided angle anywhere, cut the bias and lap it two or three inches at theheadsize, allowing it to flare to a small seam at the edge.
+
'''3. Draping the side crown'''. side crown is a bias strip fittedloosely and joined in a seam.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure14.gif]]'''FIGURE 14. Dry Molding Bias-Frame Material over a Wire Frame. '''
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Seam placement. The seam is placed as for a cap crown (see section II, 5, ofthis chapter).  
  
'''2. Dry molding over a frame''' (see Figure 14). Bias net orwillow may be stretched over wire molds without soaking, whenever the curve of the frameis such that there is no fullness left, or whenever the angle up from the face is verydecided. Often this means more than one seam. The extra seams are usually on the brimangle. The stretching, removing, and wiring process is the same as for a wet frame (seesection II, of this chapter).  
+
Draping. The side crown is draped in folds around the headsize The widthvaries from 4 to 6 inches according to the fullness desired.  
  
'''QUESTIONS'''
+
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure25.gif]]
  
How are original frame shapes made?
+
'''FIGURE 25.Making One Straight Cord from to The Back in a Six-Sectional Crown'''
  
Name the processes involved in making the first buckram frame of a new design.
+
Finish. Top Edge.  
  
What is the greatest cost element?
+
The top edge may be finished in two ways:
  
How may a pressed-frame headsize be made larger?
+
a. Fold finish. The edge may be turned in a fold and the fold slip-stitched to the cap.
  
How may a pressed-frame headsize be made smaller?
+
b. Wire finish. The top edge may be turned over a wire, or corded and finished as for a flange edge (see Chapter VII, section II, under Fitted Hats).
  
What advantages has a pressed ready-made frame for the home milliner?
+
Lower or Headsize Edge. The lower or headsize edge may be finished in any oneof three ways:
  
Name the frame materials used for hand-stretched frames.
+
a. Inside-the-crown finish. The edge may be turned up inside the crown and whip-stitched to the frame. This gives a fold finish.  
  
Give the detailed steps used in making a hand-stretched frame.  
+
b. Brim-fold finish. The headsize edge of the pressed crown may be sewn to the finished brim of the hat and the lower headsize edge of the side-crown drape pulled down over the crown headsize and slip-stitched to the brim.  
  
What is a dry-molded frame?
+
c. Crown-wire finish. The headsize edge of the pressed crown may be bound with hat material and the bias side-crown drape may be worked over a wire and finished in the same way as the top edge is finished (see section II of this chapter).
  
. Make a dry-molded frame, doll-size. Copy the shape from a given drawing.
+
TAM CROWNS
  
. What are the important points in making a wire frame for stretching purposes?
+
Tam crowns are larger than other crowns and are always soft and loose. The drape should be adjusted after the hat is complete so that the lines are becoming to the type of individual. They are all cut by patterns where seam placement and mounting directions are given.
  
. Make two doll-size wire frames for models.
+
'''1. Fitted or circular crowns''' are crowns with round or oval tops and aside crown which is cut from a segment of a large circle edge.
  
[[BooksLowenhatsChapter3|CHAPTER III]]
+
'''2. Sectional tams''' are larger but are treated much the same as plainsectional crowns. The shapes are different in outline because the extra flare is fittedinto the same headsize as any other crown. The assembling of the sections is just the same(see section II of this chapter). See Figure 33
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 +
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure33.gif]]
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 +
Six-section
 +
 
 +
Four-section
 +
 
 +
Eight-section
 +
 
 +
Five-section.
 +
 
 +
'''3. Saddle tams.''' Saddle tams are shaped with a long fitted striprunning from side to side and with circular-shaped sections at front and back. See Figure35. Directions for assembling are always given in the patterns.
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 +
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure35.gif]]
 +
 
 +
'''4. Round tam with bias side'''. In making this kind of tam the bias isheld a little full to give extra flare, but never enough to make shirrings at thetop-crown seam.
 +
 
 +
FITTED CROWNS
 +
 
 +
Fitted crowns differ from other kinds in that the different pieces are fitted and sewn separately to the pressed crown.
 +
 
 +
'''1. Fitted or pressed crowns.''' A top piece is fitted and sewn or pastedonto the top of a pressed crown, and a plain bias side crown fitted and finished with afold or a wire finish (see section II of this chapter).
 +
 
 +
'''2. Draped side crown'''. This variety is the same as 1, but has a widerbias side. The extra width is draped in folds around the side crown. Many of the pressedcrowns now on the market have plain or folded cuff sides over which the draped side crownmay be folded. Place the bias side-crown seam where it will show least.
 +
 
 +
'''3. Fitted top crowns'''. Fitted top crowns may have a bias side crownwhich is corded in groups of three or more or which is corded at regular spaces.
 +
 
 +
'''4. Sectional crowns fitted on pressed crowns.''' A sectional crown (seesection II) may be assembled and fitted over a pressed crown.
 +
 
 +
SOFT SEMIFITTED CROWNS
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 +
'''1. Draped.''' Under this heading come the crowns that are draped with theextra fullness cut out. Folds are laid to match on the cut edges and an unfinished cordset in.
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 +
'''2. Sectional'''. A bias piece is fitted around a pressed crown. The loweredge is finished plain or draped in a fold. The top edge is cut in pie with a sectionpattern and the seams stitched plain or corded.
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 +
IV. HOW TO DETERMINE KINDS OF CROWNS SUITABLE TOINDIVIDUAL TYPES OF FACES
 +
 
 +
WHAT DECIDES THE KIND OF CROWN TO BE WORN
 +
 
 +
The contour of the face - the proportion of the face oval - always determines the kind of crown suitable to the individual. The crown of the hat makes the complemental (top half) of the oval.
 +
 
 +
RULES FOR CHOOSING CROWNS
 +
 
 +
'''1. For the wide face oval.''' The crown must never be narrower than theface at its widest point. A narrower crown makes a wide face seem wider in proportion.Wide, soft crowns are most becoming to wide faces. Four- section tams, round tams,saddle crowns, or cap crowns wide from side to side are good types.
 +
 
 +
'''2. For the narrower face.''' The fitted crown must never be wider thanthe face oval at its widest point. A crown too wide overshadows a narrow face until theface seems even smaller.
 +
 
 +
A soft drape may be used without spoiling the proportion.
 +
 
 +
A soft, not too-wide crown is best for a narrow face, as cap crowns and soft six- andeight-section crowns.
 +
 
 +
'''3. For the long, thin face.''' The long, thin face must have acomparatively low, not too wide, crown. A very high or stiff crown must never be chosen.It adds and exaggerates length.
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 +
III. OUTLINE OF KINDS OF CROWNS AND THEIR APPROPRIATEBRIMS
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OVAL OVAL CAP CAPCROWN,CROWN, 2-SEC- 4-, 6-, & CIR- SEC- SEC- LONG WIDE TION 8-SEC- CULARTIONALSADDLE-TIONAL SOFT FROM FROMCROWNS TION TAM TAM TAMFITTEDFITTEDFITTEDFRONT ToSIDE ToChapterCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNS BACK SIDE IVChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapter sec. 11 IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. sec. 11. sec. 11 sec. 11. sec. 11. sec. 11 sec. 11 sec. 11sec. 11. sec. 11.Medium-large Sailor Brim*****
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Small Sailor Brim*****
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Large Mushroom Brim*****
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Medium Mushroom Brim.* ****
 +
 
 +
Small Mushroom Brim* ***** **
 +
 
 +
Large Poke Brim***
 +
 
 +
Medium Poke Brim*****
 +
 
 +
Small Poke Wide from Side to Side***
 +
 
 +
Small Poke Long Front****
 +
 
 +
Medium-large Tricorn Brim***
 +
 
 +
Small Tricorn Brim***
 +
 
 +
Large Irregular Brim*****
 +
 
 +
Small Irregular Brim***
 +
 
 +
Medium-large Rolled Brim*****
 +
 
 +
Small Rolled Brim*****
 +
 
 +
A very flat crown is out of proportion and makes for exaggeration.
 +
 
 +
Soft crowns of medium height and width complement the long, thin face. Soft cap crowns,long from front to back, section cap crowns, and circle cap crowns are very good for thistype.
 +
 
 +
'''4. For the short face oval.''' The short face oval must avoid extremelyhigh crowns and extremely wide crowns. A very high crown makes the face seem shorter bycontrast. A very wide crown looks heavy and adds to the apparent width of the face.Medium-high crowns with soft, irregular width are best for this class, as soft crowns widefrom side to side and two-section crowns.
 +
 
 +
QUESTIONS
 +
 
 +
1. Define a cap crown, a section crown, a tam crown, asectional cap crown.
 +
 
 +
2. What is the important point in seam placement?
 +
 
 +
3. Give two ways of assembling a corded sectional crown which has an evennumber of sections.
 +
 
 +
4. What principle decides the kind of crown to be worn by any individual?
 +
 
 +
5. Name the kinds of crowns becoming to four distinct types of individuals.
 +
 
 +
6. Make five different kinds of crowns, doll-size.
 +
 
 +
7. Give two kinds of crowns that may be used with each of five distinct types of hats asgiven in the Outline, section IV.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[BooksLowenhatsChapter5|CHAPTERV]]
  
 
Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.  
 
Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.  
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==Product Links==
 
==Product Links==
  
[[File:AmazonBooksFromtheneckup.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0941082008/thecostumersmani| From the Neck Up : An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking]]  From the Neck Up : An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking
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[[File:AmazonBooksApassionforribbonry.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/156477211X/thecostumersmani| A Passion for Ribbonry]]  A Passion for Ribbonry
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooksCrownsportraits.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385500866/thecostumersmani| Crowns : Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats]]  Crowns : Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats
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[[File:AmazonBooksHats.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1556708874/thecostumersmani| Hats]] Hats
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[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/032500336X/thecostumersmani|Basic Millinery for the Stage]
  
[[File:AmazonBooksHatsstylestatus.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500279446/thecostumersmani| Hats : Status, Style and Glamour]]  Hats : Status, Style and Glamour
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[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0937274739/thecostumersmani|The Hat Book : Creating Hats for Every Occasion]
  
[[File:AmazonBooksClassicmillinerytech.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/157990016X/thecostumersmani| Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats]]  Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats
+
[[File:AmazonBooks8Hatsahistory.jpeg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0486427463/thecostumersmani| Hats : A History of Fashion in Headwear]]  Hats : A History of Fashion in Headwear
  
[[File:AmazonBooksAcenturyofhats.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0785811133/thecostumersmani| The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century]]  The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century
+
[[File:AmazonBooksHattricks80.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1579900399/thecostumersmani| Hat Tricks : 80 Instant Makeovers That Transform Ordinary Hats into Fabulous Creations]]  Hat Tricks : 80 Instant Makeovers That Transform Ordinary Hats into Fabulous Creations

Revision as of 01:18, 23 January 2014

Millinery by Jane Loewen 1925, Chapter 4: CROWNSMillinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 4: CROWNS

1920sLowenhatsFigure111d.gif

AmazonBooks4Bsicmillinerystage.jpg

AmazonBooksThehatbook.gif

I. FRAME FOUNDATIONS USED FOR CROWNS

Pressed crowns

1. Desirable kinds of pressedcrowns

Side crown foundations

II. KINDS OF CROWNS

Cap crowns

Plain oval-top crown

Small oval-side crown shirred on cord

Round Top Crown

Method of mounting

Seam placement

Plain sectional

Kinds of sectional crowns

Method of assembling sectional crowns

Section cap crown with draped side crown

Assembling

Mounting the top crown

Draping the side crown

Tam crowns

Pitted or circular crowns

Sectional tams

Saddle tams

Round tam with bias sides

Fitted crowns

Fitted or pressed crowns

Draped side crown

Fitted top crowns

Sectional crowns fitted on pressed crowns

Soft semifitted crowns

Draped

Sectional

III. OUTLINE OF KINDS OF CROWNS, ANDTHEIR APPROPRIATE BRIMS

IV. HOW TO DETERMINE KINDS OF CROWNSSUITABLE TO INDIVIDUAL

TYPES OF FACES

What decides the kind of crown to be worn

Rules for choosing crowns

For the wide face oval

For the narrower face

For the long, thin face

For the short face oval

QUESTIONS

I. FRAME FOUNDATIONS USED FOR CROWNS

PRESSED CROWNS

A pressed crown is the simplest foundation to use for a crown because it may be purchased ready for use. When a soft crown is desired, the top of the crown may be cut out with a razor blade after the hat is completed but before the hat is lined.

1. Desirable kinds of pressed crowns. A soft pressed crown (one madeof elastic net, crinoline, or very lightweight jockey buckram) is always the mostsatisfactory, both from the point of view of comfort and of appearance.

Plain oval. A plain oval crown is the best foundation for most cap and section crowns.

Cuff crowns. An oval pressed crown with plain or draped separate cuff around the side crown may be used for mounting a cap crown (see section II, of this chapter), and for mounting a fitted cap with a draped side (see section II, of this chapter).

Shaped oval crowns. Shaped oval crowns - for example, one that is larger at the top and higher on the left side -often make good frames (or molds) over which to sew braid crowns. (See Chapter VIII, section II.)

SIDE CROWN FOUNDATIONS

A bias strip of elastic net or willow may be cut to fit the brim headsize; the width of this band varies from 2 to 4 inches according to the kind of crown. Start with 4 inches and cut it lower if desired. Stretch the bias frame material so that the headsize is larger around than the top of the band. After it is shaped trim the headsize edge and wire and bind it. Cut the top edge so that it slants down in a lower curve on the right side. Bind it as for a frame edge.FIGURE 21. Pressed Crown with Cuff Side Crown

1920sLowenhatsFigure21.gifII. KINDS OF CROWNS

CAP CROWNS

A cap crown is a soft crown made with an oval or round top and a bias side.

1. Plain oval-top crowns. The most commonly used cap crown has an ovaltop and a bias side which measures from 5 to 8 inches. The variation of width depends onthe amount of drape desired in the side crown.

The oval top may be used in two ways.

Long from front to back. The plain oval-top crown may be placed so that it islong from front to back, with the folds draped a little deeper on the rightside.

Wide from side to side. The plain oval-top crown may be used so that itslength is from side to side. The folds of the drape are then deeper at the sides, becausethe oval brings the side crown down lower at the sides, so, that the crown stands higherin front and back than at the sides. The cap may be pushed back on the pressed crown sothat the front is much higher than the back. This draping of a cap crown is becoming to awoman with a wide face oval (see Section III of this chapter).

1920sLowenhatsFigure22.gif2. Small oval-side crownshirred on cord. This is often used on a hat for girl who has a small face. The top crown is so small that it is not much more than a tip. It varies in size from an oval of 4 1/2 by 3 inches to an oval of 3 by 2 1/2 inches.3. Round top crown. Occasionally a round top, a perfect circle, is used for a capcrown, usually in a semidraped soft hat.

4. Method of mounting. Since a cap crown should always be soft in appearance it is usually mounted on a soft pressed crown or a bias side band of elastic net.

5. Seam placement. The seam in the side of a cap crown should always be placed where it shows least.

In an even drape place the bias seam so that it starts at the center back and runstoward the right side. It will be less conspicuous on the right side. The hat is worntilted down on the right side. Any trimming is usually on the right side.

In an uneven drape the seam should always be placed where the side crown is lowest andthe seam shows least.

When there is a side-crown trimming, the seam of the bias side may be placed so thatthe trimming covers it.

PLAIN SECTIONAL

Plain sectional crowns are semifitted soft crowns made of a number of pie- or wedge-shaped sections.

1. Kinds of sectional crowns. The various kinds of sectional crownsare: two-section crowns, four-section crown's, six-section crowns, eight-section crowns.

2. Method of assembling sectional crowns. (Exact directions are alwaysgiven on each section-crown pattern.)

1920sLowenhatsFigure23.gifFIGURE 23. An Unfinished Cord. Plain sectional crowns. The method is always to baste from the center top downto the headsize before stitching. If the material used is very soft or very lightweight,an interlining is used. Care is needed to keep the seam smooth but not stretched.

Corded sectional crown - an unfinished bias cord is used to out- line thesections (see Figure 23

For an even number of sections - there are two methods of cording (see Figures 24and 25

Cording half the sections is a method used when only half the sectionsareoutlined with cord from the headsize to the center and down to the headsize again. Theyare then assembled with a plain section alternating with a corded one. This makes ne cordon each seam and each cord pointed in a V at the center top crown.

Making a straight cord from front to back--- in this method one length of cord is runfrom front to back of the crown. One section is sewn on each side of this cord with thecentral points meeting. Any extra sections are then outlined with cord (from headsize tocenter and from the top to the headsize) and set in.

1920sLowenhatsFigure24.gifIn case of a four-section crown only one extra cord on each side is set in from headsize to center top. For an uneven number of sections, the best method is to outline one side of each section with cord and let all cord ends meet at the center top. The ends are hidden on the seam side. It will be seen that a fine soft cord is essential.

FIGURE 24. Cording a Sectional Crown

SECTIONAL CAP CROWN WITH DRAPED SIDE CROWN

The top of the crown is made of pie-shaped sections which form a circle or an oval.

1. Assembling. In this type of crown the top crown is assembled withor without cords as for a plain sectional crown.

2. Mounting the top crown. The circle edge of the section cap thusformed is shirred and the cap is mounted on a pressed crown, the fullness evenlydistributed, and the cap sewn to the pressed crown.

3. Draping the side crown. side crown is a bias strip fittedloosely and joined in a seam.

Seam placement. The seam is placed as for a cap crown (see section II, 5, ofthis chapter).

Draping. The side crown is draped in folds around the headsize The widthvaries from 4 to 6 inches according to the fullness desired.

1920sLowenhatsFigure25.gif

FIGURE 25.Making One Straight Cord from to The Back in a Six-Sectional Crown

Finish. Top Edge.

The top edge may be finished in two ways:

a. Fold finish. The edge may be turned in a fold and the fold slip-stitched to the cap.

b. Wire finish. The top edge may be turned over a wire, or corded and finished as for a flange edge (see Chapter VII, section II, under Fitted Hats).

Lower or Headsize Edge. The lower or headsize edge may be finished in any oneof three ways:

a. Inside-the-crown finish. The edge may be turned up inside the crown and whip-stitched to the frame. This gives a fold finish.

b. Brim-fold finish. The headsize edge of the pressed crown may be sewn to the finished brim of the hat and the lower headsize edge of the side-crown drape pulled down over the crown headsize and slip-stitched to the brim.

c. Crown-wire finish. The headsize edge of the pressed crown may be bound with hat material and the bias side-crown drape may be worked over a wire and finished in the same way as the top edge is finished (see section II of this chapter).

TAM CROWNS

Tam crowns are larger than other crowns and are always soft and loose. The drape should be adjusted after the hat is complete so that the lines are becoming to the type of individual. They are all cut by patterns where seam placement and mounting directions are given.

1. Fitted or circular crowns are crowns with round or oval tops and aside crown which is cut from a segment of a large circle edge.

2. Sectional tams are larger but are treated much the same as plainsectional crowns. The shapes are different in outline because the extra flare is fittedinto the same headsize as any other crown. The assembling of the sections is just the same(see section II of this chapter). See Figure 33

1920sLowenhatsFigure33.gif

Six-section

Four-section

Eight-section

Five-section.

3. Saddle tams. Saddle tams are shaped with a long fitted striprunning from side to side and with circular-shaped sections at front and back. See Figure35. Directions for assembling are always given in the patterns.

1920sLowenhatsFigure35.gif

4. Round tam with bias side. In making this kind of tam the bias isheld a little full to give extra flare, but never enough to make shirrings at thetop-crown seam.

FITTED CROWNS

Fitted crowns differ from other kinds in that the different pieces are fitted and sewn separately to the pressed crown.

1. Fitted or pressed crowns. A top piece is fitted and sewn or pastedonto the top of a pressed crown, and a plain bias side crown fitted and finished with afold or a wire finish (see section II of this chapter).

2. Draped side crown. This variety is the same as 1, but has a widerbias side. The extra width is draped in folds around the side crown. Many of the pressedcrowns now on the market have plain or folded cuff sides over which the draped side crownmay be folded. Place the bias side-crown seam where it will show least.

3. Fitted top crowns. Fitted top crowns may have a bias side crownwhich is corded in groups of three or more or which is corded at regular spaces.

4. Sectional crowns fitted on pressed crowns. A sectional crown (seesection II) may be assembled and fitted over a pressed crown.

SOFT SEMIFITTED CROWNS

1. Draped. Under this heading come the crowns that are draped with theextra fullness cut out. Folds are laid to match on the cut edges and an unfinished cordset in.

2. Sectional. A bias piece is fitted around a pressed crown. The loweredge is finished plain or draped in a fold. The top edge is cut in pie with a sectionpattern and the seams stitched plain or corded.

IV. HOW TO DETERMINE KINDS OF CROWNS SUITABLE TOINDIVIDUAL TYPES OF FACES

WHAT DECIDES THE KIND OF CROWN TO BE WORN

The contour of the face - the proportion of the face oval - always determines the kind of crown suitable to the individual. The crown of the hat makes the complemental (top half) of the oval.

RULES FOR CHOOSING CROWNS

1. For the wide face oval. The crown must never be narrower than theface at its widest point. A narrower crown makes a wide face seem wider in proportion.Wide, soft crowns are most becoming to wide faces. Four- section tams, round tams,saddle crowns, or cap crowns wide from side to side are good types.

2. For the narrower face. The fitted crown must never be wider thanthe face oval at its widest point. A crown too wide overshadows a narrow face until theface seems even smaller.

A soft drape may be used without spoiling the proportion.

A soft, not too-wide crown is best for a narrow face, as cap crowns and soft six- andeight-section crowns.

3. For the long, thin face. The long, thin face must have acomparatively low, not too wide, crown. A very high or stiff crown must never be chosen.It adds and exaggerates length.

III. OUTLINE OF KINDS OF CROWNS AND THEIR APPROPRIATEBRIMS

OVAL OVAL CAP CAPCROWN,CROWN, 2-SEC- 4-, 6-, & CIR- SEC- SEC- LONG WIDE TION 8-SEC- CULARTIONALSADDLE-TIONAL SOFT FROM FROMCROWNS TION TAM TAM TAMFITTEDFITTEDFITTEDFRONT ToSIDE ToChapterCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNSCROWNS BACK SIDE IVChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapterChapter sec. 11 IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. IV. sec. 11. sec. 11 sec. 11. sec. 11. sec. 11 sec. 11 sec. 11sec. 11. sec. 11.Medium-large Sailor Brim*****

Small Sailor Brim*****

Large Mushroom Brim*****

Medium Mushroom Brim.* ****

Small Mushroom Brim* ***** **

Large Poke Brim***

Medium Poke Brim*****

Small Poke Wide from Side to Side***

Small Poke Long Front****

Medium-large Tricorn Brim***

Small Tricorn Brim***

Large Irregular Brim*****

Small Irregular Brim***

Medium-large Rolled Brim*****

Small Rolled Brim*****

A very flat crown is out of proportion and makes for exaggeration.

Soft crowns of medium height and width complement the long, thin face. Soft cap crowns,long from front to back, section cap crowns, and circle cap crowns are very good for thistype.

4. For the short face oval. The short face oval must avoid extremelyhigh crowns and extremely wide crowns. A very high crown makes the face seem shorter bycontrast. A very wide crown looks heavy and adds to the apparent width of the face.Medium-high crowns with soft, irregular width are best for this class, as soft crowns widefrom side to side and two-section crowns.

QUESTIONS

1. Define a cap crown, a section crown, a tam crown, asectional cap crown.

2. What is the important point in seam placement?

3. Give two ways of assembling a corded sectional crown which has an evennumber of sections.

4. What principle decides the kind of crown to be worn by any individual?

5. Name the kinds of crowns becoming to four distinct types of individuals.

6. Make five different kinds of crowns, doll-size.

7. Give two kinds of crowns that may be used with each of five distinct types of hats asgiven in the Outline, section IV.


CHAPTERV

Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.

Product Links

A Passion for Ribbonry A Passion for Ribbonry

Millinery for the Stage

Hat Book : Creating Hats for Every Occasion

Hats : A History of Fashion in Headwear Hats : A History of Fashion in Headwear

Hat Tricks : 80 Instant Makeovers That Transform Ordinary Hats into Fabulous Creations Hat Tricks : 80 Instant Makeovers That Transform Ordinary Hats into Fabulous Creations

"The Costumer's Manifesto"
by Tara Maginnis