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Millinery by Jane Loewen 1925, Chapter 12: Dress-Hat Trimmings'''Millinery by Jane Loewen 1925,Chapter 12: Dress Hat Trimmings'''
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Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 2: MOLDED FRAMES'''Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 2: MOLDEDFRAMES'''
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure108e.gif]]
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure99.gif]]
  
[[File:AmazonBooks10Ribbontrims.jpeg]]
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MOLDED FRAMES
  
1. TRIMMINGS FOR WHICH THE HAT IS A BACKGROUND
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I. MOLDED OR PRESSED FRAMES
  
Flowers forthe garden hat
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Process of manufacture
  
Elaborateostrich trimmings
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Cost of manufacture
  
Paradise
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Advantages of using a pressed frame
  
Burnt goose
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Adjustment of pressed frame
  
1. Bands
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To adjust the headsize
  
2. Fancies
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To make a mushroom from a sailor
  
3. Entire crowns
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To make a poke from a mushroom
  
Elaboratecoq
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To use a pattern on a pressed frame
  
1. Bands
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I I. HAND-MOLDED FRAMES
  
2. Fancies
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Frames of various materials stretchedon wire
  
3. Crowns
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Willow
  
II. TRIMMING WHICH IS PART OF THE DESIGN
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Buckram
  
Flowers
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Jockey
  
1. Single flower
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Elastic net
  
2. Sprays of flowers
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Rice net or cape net
  
Feathers
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Crinoline
  
1. Ostrich heads
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Process of making a stretched frame
  
2. Paradise
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Soaking frame fabric in water
  
3. Aigrettes
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Pinning frame fabric to wire frame
  
4. Fancies made of ostrich fiber
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Drying frame fabric on the frame
  
Embroideries
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Removing frame fabric from the mold
  
1. Silk floss
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How to give variety to shapes stretched on the same frame
  
2. Appliqué materials in design
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How to wire a frame
  
3. Ribbonzene
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I I I. BIAS DRY-MOLDED FRAMES
  
4. Tinsel thread
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When frames may be molded in this way
  
5. Tinsel-ribbon embroidery
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Processes
  
6. Tinted ribbon
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Frame molding in the hand
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Dry molding over a frame
  
 
QUESTIONS
 
QUESTIONS
  
In choosing a dress hat remember always that there are two outstanding qualities for which designers strive in making this type of millinery. One is beauty, the other, style or chic. To attain both is a rarity. Decide in your own mind whether you want a sweet hat or a smart hat. Have both qualities when it is possible. Be sure that you know in your own mind what you want. You are then a great deal more likely to attain it.
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'''CHAPTER II '''
  
Dress-hat trimming may be divided into two classes, trimming which uses the hat for a background only, and trimming which is part of the design.
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I. MOLDED ORPRESSED FRAMES
  
I. TRIMMING FOR WHICH THE HAT IS A BACKGROUND
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PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE
  
There are times when a hat must be chosen for the trimming, rather than the trimming for the hat. Such trimmings are:
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The original model for a pressed frame is a wire frame made by the designer (seeChapter I, section I). A model which is to be used for a manufacturer's mold must be avery firm frame closely braced, with any roll or bend perfectly outlined. For an irregularshape an extra, straight brace is usually added between each of the eight ordinarily used,making sixteen straight brace wires. The round braces should be about 1/2 inchapart. The wire model now goes to the molding room, where the block makers make a plastercast or mold from it.  
  
FLOWERS FOR THE GARDEN HAT
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From the plaster cast a wooden mold is whittled or carved. This wooden block is kept instock, as it may be used for shaping straw shapes as they are sewn by makers before sizingand blocking. From the wooden block an hydraulic steel die is made. This consists of twoforms, upper and lower, which fit together like an acorn in its cup. In making the pressedframe buckram or net is soaked in water or a sizing solution and stretched over the heatedlower steel die. The top half of the die is clamped down over it and left until the framematerial is thoroughly dry. At least two men are required to operate this die, or pressmachine. After the frame is pressed, the rough edges extending beyond the die must betrimmed, the headsize cut out, and the edge wired and bound by machine.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure84.gif]]
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COST OF MANUFACTURE
  
'''FIGURE 84. Straw Garden Hat with Wreath Trimming and Crepe Underfacing.'''
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Pressed crowns are made in much the same way as brims. After all the expensive processof mold-making, two men are required to operate the machine on which the frames arepressed. On the average, the first frame made on an hydraulic die costs from $300 to $600.It may readily be seen that an enormous number of frames must be sold before the originalcost is covered. In other words, the thousands of frames that must be sold from one dietend to make the shape a common one. Producers of exclusive millinery prefer to makehand-molded frames or to change the shape of the French frame in order to differentiateit.  
  
Flower manufacturing his reached at high degree of perfection within the last ten years. Morning-glories, nasturtiums, fuchsias, sweet peas, camellias, dahlias, wisteria, and hosts of other flowers are copied with absolute fidelity to form and color.Not content with following the colors used by nature, the designers and dye makers go further and give us blue roses and pink lilies-of-the-valley. These are often so artistic in their conception and so satisfactory in effect that the divergence from authentic coloring is not objectionable.
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ADVANTAGES OF USING A PRESSED FRAME
  
Many beautiful wreaths and sprays may be purchased ready-made, but the same effects may be obtained at much less cost when a little taste and care is used in the making of a wreath.
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There are a number of advantages in using a pressed frame. Much expensive labor issaved. It takes almost as much time to prepare a hand-blocked frame as it takes to makethe hat. The cost factor to the hat manufacturer is much less for a machine frame. Themachine frame will stand more unskilled handling than a hand-molded frame. The pressedframe has a smoother and more finished appearance than a handmade frame. To theuninitiated home milliner the hand-modeled frame often seems unfinished and imperfect.They see the rough-appearing surface rather than its beauty of line. Pressed frames may bepurchased from the millinery departments of the large department stores, from thebetter of the $ .50 and $1 stores, and from many of the mail-order houses.  
  
Colors and flowers chosen to match or harmonize with hat and frock make a much more pleasing completed costume than can be had in a combination wreath which is made of flowers and colors selected at random.There is no more picturesque hat for wear with organdie, lace, and linen frocks than the garden hat. Large, floppy, straw-body hats laden with flowers lend color and atmosphere to summer costumes.
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ADJUSTMENT OF PRESSED FRAME
  
These body hats may be purchased untrimmed in any good department or millinery store. Facings or bindings of georgette, organdie, velvet, or taffeta make a more finished-looking hat and give an opportunity for the use of color.
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The average pressed shape should be purchased with the idea of changing it to suit theindividual before using it.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure85.gif]]
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'''1. To adjust the headsize'''. The headsize may be made larger by slashingthe brim from headsize to edge and inserting a piece of buckram or elastic net. Rip theedge binding and the wire where it is lapped. Pin in the necessary piece ofmaterial. Try on the frame. Adjust the size. Bend the set-in piece at the headsize as theframe headsize is bent. Sew the seams firmly by machine or with a tight backstitch.Replace the edge wire with binding. To make the headsize smaller rip the binding and edgewire joining. slash from edge to headsize and lap until the headsize fits. If the frame isa great deal too large, two slashes - one at the front and one at the back - arenecessary. Too much lapping will throw. the frame out ofshape.
  
'''FIGURE 85. Garden Hat with Front Trimming of French Flowers.'''
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure8.gif]]
  
A black garden hat may have a wreath of buttercups, green, yellow, and blue wheat, yellow and blue berries, and green and rose apples. If the wreath is tied with dull blue ribbon and the hat faced in either green, blue, or rose, it may be worn with almost any costume. It is lovely worn with any one of its own colors.
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'''Figure 8. To Make a Poke Brim from a Mushroom Frame'''Illustration a is a plain mushroom brim from which a poke may be cut. In b note the lapped seam C and the dotted line AB for cutting the front.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure86.gif]]
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'''2. To make a mushroom from a sailor.''' To make a mushroom from astraight sailor brim cut the brim at the back and front from edge wire to headsize,ripping the edge binding and edge wire. Make a seam which laps very little at theheadsize, but a great deal more at the edge. Taking from the edge and not from theheadsize is what gives the mushroom effect. Trim some width of brim from the front andmore from the back. The conventional mushroom needs to be proportionately narrower infront than a sailor, because when a frame droops it hides the face. A narrow back (seeFigure 8) is always better because, first, a wide drooping effect makes thick-lookingshoulders, and, second, because it interferes with comfort by knocking against coatcollars, car windows, and seat backs.
  
'''FIGURE 86. Dress Hat of Black Satin withWhite Top Brim and Trimming of White Lilacs.'''
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'''3. To make a poke from a mushroom.''' This process is much the same asabove, because the frame is already mushroom. Rip the binding and edge wire. Cut the backfrom edge to headsize. Slant the seam so that the edge laps from one to two inches and theheadsize laps only l/4 inch.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure87.gif]]
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'''4. To use a pattern on a pressed frame.''' Many of the mushroom-hatpatterns may be cut from an ordinary pressed-sailor or mushroom frame. Cut off theheadsize slashes of the pattern on the line marked "headsize." Pin thepattern onto the mushroom brim. Mark the correct edge and cut. This does away with thenecessity of wiring a headsize and with the bother of looking for correct frame material.The original edge binding may be replaced. Silk brace wire is more satisfactory for theedge wire. Poke patterns may be cut from mushroom frames in the same way. The importantthing is to get the same slant and the same proportion as the hat pattern so that the samepattern may be used to cut the hat materials.  
  
''' FIGURE 87'''
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I I. HAND-MOLDED FRAMES
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure88.gif]]
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FRAMES OF VARIOUS MATERIAL STRETCHED ON WIRE
  
'''Figures 87 '''and'''88''' show the detail of the tie-tack stitch used for tacking flowers andfeathers.
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There are a number of frame materials that may satisfactorily be used for stretchingframes. The ones most used are willow, buckram, jockey, elastic net, rice net, andcrinoline.  
  
Stems are sewn with ordinary stitches. The sprays and feathers are caught loosely with a tie-tack stitch.
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'''Willow:''' See Chapter I, section I.
  
If you watch flower coloring you will see that almost any, or all, colors in the spectrum may be combined if they are used in the correct shades and proportions.
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'''Buckram:''' See Chapter I, section I.  
  
ELABORATE OSTRICH TRIMMINGS
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'''Jockey:''' See Chapter I, section I. '''Elastic net:'''See Chapter I, section I. '''Rice net''' is a frame material which is as much anet as wire window screening. A thread net held together by sizing (or starch) wouldproperly define it. Cape net is the same thing with finer mesh. Rice net is used forstretching soft crowns and for small brims of very soft ribbon or braid sport hats. Itmakes a softer frame than elastic net. It is sometimes used with a thickness of crinoline.Crinoline is used to stretch soft tam crowns, baby hats, old ladies' bonnets, and withrice net for larger hats. When crinoline and rice net are used together the two materialsare stretched one over the other, pinned separately, but dried and removed together. Thesizing sticks them together so that they hold nicely.
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure89.gif]]''' FIGURE 89.''' Hat Designed to Fit the Ostrich Trimming.
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PROCESS OF MAKING A STRETCHED FRAME
  
When a hat is to be made with an elaborate ostrich trimming it is easier to adapt the hat to the ostrich than vice versa. This does not mean ostrich heads or quills or plain bands, for they maybe adapted to a hat; but the more elaborate ostrich bands and crowns. These come in a variety of shapes, styles, and colors.When they are used, the designer tries the feathers on various frames, and if none is completely harmonious, shapes a frame to make it a fitting background for the feathers as well as becoming to the individual.
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'''1. Soaking frame fabric in water.''' The first step in stretching ahand-molded frame is to soak the frame material to be used. Each of the fabrics mentionedunder section II of this chapter has a great deal of sizing. This needs only to be wet tobecome pliable. Then it may be stretched over any desired frame and it will dry in thatshape.
  
PARADISE
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'''2. Pinning frame fabric to the wire frame.''' Start pinning at the fronton the edge wire. Use a bias corner of the willow. Pin to first one side of the brim, thento the other. Smooth the wet fabric over the wire frame, adding first a pin at the edgewire, then one at the headsize. Cut out a small headsize circle. Slash the materialat the headsize to the lower headsize wire at intervals of 1/2 inch. Do not slash belowthe lower headsize wire. Smooth all fullness out by pulling it out at the edge andheadsize and pushing it backward to the seam. Trim the headsize slashes, leaving onlyenough to pin over the top headsize wire. Do not bend the material over the edge wire.Allow it to extend beyond the wire. Place pins at intervals of one inch.
  
Paradise and aigrettes are the most beautiful of all feathers but they are procured in a manner so barbaric that it is inconceivable that any well-bred woman would want them.  
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure9.gif]]'''FIGURE 9. Pinning the Frame Fabric to the Wire Frame. '''Be careful not to pull the frame too tightly between the straight brace wires, or the edge wire will lose its contour. There will be an angle on each straight brace at the edge wire. '''3. Drying frame fabric on the frame. '''Hang the stretched frame up to dry above a hot radiator or in a window, if you want it to dry quickly. A good idea for class work is to stretch the frames in one lesson that are to be used for the next day. Then they may stand overnight. A frame must be thoroughly dried before it is removed from the wire mold
  
Since there is no accounting for tastes, their use must be given space. These feathers are so elaborate in themselves that ordinarily a plain hat with style of line is the best to use for them. For aigrettes, a draped turban with smooth, smart lines, or an irregular turned-up brim of soft lines is the best background. These shapes are becoming to most people.
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure10.gif]]'''FIGURE 10. Original Frame. A Rolled Brim Made from the Dimensions Given in Chapter I, Section IV'''
  
For paradise birds (which in themselves are showy but not pretty or artistic), a large-brim hat is necessary.
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'''4. Removing fabric frame from the mold.''' When the frame isthoroughly dry, mark edge wire, headsize wire, and seam with a pencil. Pull out the pinsfrom edge and headsize. Place them in a separate box to be used for frames only. Thestarch on them will mark silk or velvet. Loosen the frame carefully at both edge andheadsize.  
  
Sprays of paradise feathers, without a head, are as beautiful as their source is cruel. Our feminine vanity and love of the beautiful, together with a faculty for shutting our eyes to the disagreeable, is what has kept them on the market.
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure11.gif]]'''FIGURE 11. The Same Frame Made into a Tricorn. '''Remove a little at a time so as not to stretch it out of shape. Trim the back seam andlap it as it was marked if the headsize is the correct size. The headsize may be adjustedas for a pressed brim (see Chapter II, section I). Cut headsize and wire edge at thepencil mark.  
  
Paradise sprays may be used on small or medium-large rolled-brim hats, tiny sailors, and turbans.
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure12.gif]]'''FIGURE 12. The Frame Made into a Square-Edge Tricorn. 5. How to give variety to shapes stretched on the same frame.''' If awire mold has a good headsize roll as.well as a becoming brim line, it may be changed in avariety of ways.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure90.gif]]
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure13.gif]]'''FIGURE 13. Finishing the Headsize with Ribbon Wire. '''The brim may be merely cut smaller. It may be slashed at the side, or it may be cut togive an entirely different effect (see illustration, Figures 11 and 12).
  
'''FIGURE 90.''' Hat Designed for Trimming of Aigrettes.
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'''6. To wire a frame.''' For the headsize, cut a half-inch bias band of dryframe material. Join this in a circle the same size as the brim headsize. Wire the lowerheadsize with brace wire, using a blanket stitch. Lap the ends of the wire two inches.Shape the circle of frame material and wire into an oval. Slip this over the brim headsizewith the unwired edge up. Sew the oval to the slashes, using two rows of backstitching,one just above the wire and one at the top edge. Straighten the wire for the edge byrunning the thumb and forefinger over it lengthwise, using the cushion part of the finger,not the tips. When the curve is thus worked out of the wire, buttonhole it to the top edgeof the frame (edge-wire Figure 18), taking very tight stitches about three fourths of aninch long and only one sixteenth of an inch in from the edge. Lap the ends of the wire twoand one-half inches and sew down firmly. Bind the edge with a three-fourths-inch biasstrip of muslin or flannel. Sew with long, tight, running stitches and stretch.  
  
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure91.gif]]
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'''I I I. BIAS DRY-MOLDED FRAMES'''
  
'''FIGURE 91'''. Hat Designed inRust Faille for a Band of Dull Henna Aigrettes.
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WHEN FRAMES MAY BE MOLDED THIS WAY
  
BURNT GOOSEBurnt goose comes in a variety of elaborate forms.
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If a frame turns up straight from the face instead of flaring out in a wide brim, thereis less sewing in fitting the material. Often a bias may be stretched to fit it. A chinchin sailor, a rolled sailor, and many turbans may be stretched from a bias of elastic net,soft willow, or double crinoline. If a frame can be stretched without wetting thematerial, the process is not only much shorter, because of the soaking and drying processeliminated, but it is much more tidy. The soaking method necessitates the use of manythicknesses of newspaper or rubber work-aprons to protect dresses from wet framematerials.  
  
'''1. Bands '''are shaped in circles for the edges ofmushroom or upturned brims. It is seldom that a frame exactly fits such a band. The bandmay be slashed and lapped slightly or the frame may be cut to fit the band.
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PROCESSES
  
Other bands are really frames in themselves and need only have edgefolds, crowns, and facings added To have finished hats.
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'''1. Frame molding in the hand'''. There are wonderful possibilities formaking rolled brims in the hand without a mold. Make a half-inch willow headsize band asfor a stretched frame, or use a band of ribbon wire. Sew one edge of bias elastic net (thewidth determined by the height or width of the hat brim) inside the headsize. Curve thebias upward as you sew and crowd the material close to make it roll. Elastic net ispreferable, but soft willow answers the purpose. If width at the sides is desired, or apoint or decided angle anywhere, cut the bias and lap it two or three inches at theheadsize, allowing it to flare to a small seam at the edge.
 
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'''2. Fancies.''' Burnt-goose fancies are made on shapedforms to give aigrette-like effects. Small brims, irregular, medium-sized brims, and avariety of large brims and turbans are used as background for these feathers.
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'''3. Entire crowns''' of burnt goose give a variety oflovely effects. These come already made in a variety of shapes and colors. Brims of strawcloth, satin, velvet, or taffeta are used to mount these crowns.
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ELABORATE COQCoq makes very handsome small hats for girls and matrons, and dignified, handsome, brim hats for matrons.
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'''l. Bands.''' Bands of coq are for sidecrowns only. The feathers are too long for brim bands except where other feathers are usedfor the edge.
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'''2. Fancies.''' Coq fancies are much favored by theFrench designers and make smart, small hats. A small hat with an elaborate use of coq isvery smart, if not pretty, and highly suited for what is called a dressy street hat.
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'''3. Crowns.''' Crowns of coq are made on plain moldsfor turbans and on small brims for matron hats.
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For more elaborate dress hats these crowns come with long coq tailsattached it side or back, or with smaller coq fancies at the side or front.
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II. TRIMMING WHICH IS PART OF THEDESIGNThis is the type of trimming used for ninety per cent of the hats of today.
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Ten or fifteen years ago most of the hats worn were factory made (often of fine quality) of straw or velvet. All that the milliner needed to do was to sew on trimming, which might be elaborate or simple, according to the quality and quantity desired.
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Today most of the design of the hat is in the making. Trimming is only a small part of the design.
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FLOWERS'''1. Single flowers.''' Single flowers are used as afinish to dress and semidress hats.
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Rose. Roses are often so beautifully made that to use justone is artistic perfection. A single rose may be posed at the side of a soft tam crown; itmay be used on the edge of a shirred fold on a large brim it may catch in the velvet orfabric drape of a matron's turban; be caught to the bandeau of a Watteau hat; or benestled in the lace facing of a baby's hat.
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Gardenia. Gardenias are conventional in shape andappropriate for the more or less severe midsummer hats of taffeta and hair. A gardenia atthe side of a soft crown or at the right-side front of a brim edge is both smart andpretty.
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Handmade flower. The handmade flower is essentially a partof the design of fabric and straw hats. Most of the good-looking handmade flowers for hatsare flat. Large handmade flowers are for dresses, not millinery. Patterns and directionsfor making are always given with the hat pattern.
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'''2. Sprays of flowers.''' Sprays of flowers may be used around a top crown; around a side crown; across the back of a brim; on the facing of an upturned brim; at the headsize of a brim which is turned tip in the back; or on the brim of a large dress hat (see '''Figure 92).'''Rose sprays. These are usually of small roses or of a mixture of a few large and a number of small roses. Midwinter dress hats and spring and summer straw and hair hats are frequently trimmed with rose sprays. Leghorn and roses seem always a happy summer combination.
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Facings usually match frocks and roses in color.
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'''
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure92.gif]]FIGURE 92.''' Handmade Spray on a Large Dress HatMixed sprays. The better flowers which are made into mixedsprays usually have one or more large flowers in the center and a spray of smaller flowersextending out on each side. The large flowers serve as balance to the arrangement and tohide the stem ends of smaller flowers.
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In making these sprays, assemble two small sprays which are a pairs.Cut the extra stem ends off. Join the ends of the two sprays together and fasten thelarger flowers, or flower, over the joining.
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Metallic flowers. Metallic flowers are used to trim latefall and early winter dress hats of velvet brocade, satin, and tinsel cloth. These comealready arranged in sprays.
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More elaborate sprays may be made like the mixed sprays, asdirected in the paragraph above. Grapes, roses, berries, and small flowers are usedwith a few thistles, roses, poppies, and unknown flowers.
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Handmade sprays and wreaths. Handmade flowers may be usedfor either sprays or wreaths.
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Instead of being made into wreaths or sprays and sewed onto the hat,they are sewed onto the hat separately in a wreath foundation. This is because extrastemming, such as ready-made flowers have, would make the hat heavy and give extra workwhich has no value. Patterns and directions for handmade sprays and wreaths are given onall hat patterns where they are used.
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FEATHERSFeathers are often used on dress hats to give point to the design of the hat.
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'''1. Ostrich heads.''' Ostrich heads, correctly posed,may be made the most sophisticated finish for the design of a dress hat. An ostrich headis the head or tip end of a full ostrich plume.
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Rain-proof finishes have been so perfected that ostrich feathers arenow more satisfactory than ever.
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Blended shades of ostrich used on a velvet hat of two tones isartistically satisfying.
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For example, a Gainsborough hat may be of violet velvet faced inwisteria and trimmed in two ostrich heads the fibers of which are dyed blue and wisteria.
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There is no more artistic trim for the large, black hat thanclustered ostrich heads; not huge, sweeping, willow plumes, but graceful, nodding ostrichheads.
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'''2.Paradise.''' Small sprays of paradise may droopgracefully from the folds of a draped turban to give a wide, soft frame for the face.
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In a picture hat they accentuate the sweeping line of a wide brim.
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In a medium brim with curves they have all the grace of the oldcavaliers' hats.
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'''3. Aigrettes.''' Aigrettes make the finishing trim ondraped and semidraped hats of velvet, satin, hair, haircloth, tinsel cloth, and brocade.
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The hats may be turbans or have large or medium brims.
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure93.gif]]'''FIGURE 93.''' Design Showing Appliqué, of Fabric and Honeycomb Design of Ribbonzene.
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'''4. Fancies made of ostrich fiber, as'''Bands. Ostrich is sewed and glued onto shaped bands to make trimming for dress hats. These come in bow shapes, in crescent shapes to fit into the curve of a brim, and in rosette shapes.
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Flowers. Ostrich flowers are usually round in shape, giving a morning-glory or rose effect. They make soft, unusual trimming finishes for the large hats of exaggerated shape and style.
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EMBROIDERIES
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure94.gif]]'''FIGURE 94.''' Figure 94 shows the stitches for honeycomb all-over embroidery.
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Embroidery of every sort has been, and is still very popular for dress hats. It is fundamentally part of the design of the hat. Entire crowns and entire facings are solidly embroidered.
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'''1. Silk floss.''' Embroidery floss is seldom used alone to make the embroidery on a hat. It is used in combination with nail heads, bugle beads, wooden beads, chenille, tinsel thread, or ribbonzene.
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'''2. Appliqué materials in design.''' Appliqué in elaborate designs of conventional lines in Chinese-embroidery motifs or in intricate, all-over patterns makes handsome dress hats.Duvetyn and suede cloth, velvet, broadcloth, and heavy silks are used for this. The edges are finished with couching or blanket stitching of embroidery floss, yarn, or tinsel.
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Beaver cloth is used in appliqué design on felt hats. The edge is caught down with yarn, chenille, or beads in harmonizing color.
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'''
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure95.gif]] FIGURE 95. '''Chinese Embroidery in an AppliquédDesign on the Front of a Turban.
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'''3. Ribbonzene.''' Ribbonzene is used alone inhoneycomb, all over designs and in combination with crepe folds, tinsel braid, chenille,yarn, and floss.
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'''
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure96.gif]]'''
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'''FIGURE 96.''' Appliqués Cut from Vari-colored Velvet for a Straw Hat.
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'''
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure97.gif]] FIGURE 97.''' Cut-out Design from Printed Silk for a Fabric Hat.
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'''4. Tinsel thread.''' Tinsel embroidery thread imparts richness of color as well as design. It is rarely used alone but combined with floss, ribbonzene, Chinese embroidery, medallions, Chinese gold twist, tinsel ribbon, or beads.
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[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure98.gif]]
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'''FIGURE 98.''' The Couching Embroidery Stitch Used for Much of the Appliqué Embroidery.A heavier floss, ribbonzene, or yarn is couched on the appliqué edge with a floss thread.
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'''5. Tinsel-ribbon embroidery.''' Tinsel ribbons aremade in lovely designs of solid tinsel and in combination with colored silk or fiber.
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These ribbons laid flat on the hat and caught at curve or turn bytinsel thread make rich and lovely effects. Solid turbans and facings are embroidered inconventional line and flower designs of these ribbons.
+
 
+
'''6.Tinted ribbon'''. Ribbon woven with plain orscalloped edges tinted in two or more shades makes lovely floral designs. An easy methodis to cut a conventional rose stencil, mark the pattern on the hit, and outline and fillin to the center with shirred rows of tinted ribbon.
+
 
+
QUESTIONS
+
  
1.How Are the two major divisions of dress-hat trimmingsmade?
+
[[File:1920sLowenhatsFigure14.gif]]'''FIGURE 14. Dry Molding Bias-Frame Material over a Wire Frame. '''
  
2.Give the uses for and types named of ostrich trimming.
+
'''2. Dry molding over a frame''' (see Figure 14). Bias net orwillow may be stretched over wire molds without soaking, whenever the curve of the frameis such that there is no fullness left, or whenever the angle up from the face is verydecided. Often this means more than one seam. The extra seams are usually on the brimangle. The stretching, removing, and wiring process is the same as for a wet frame (seesection II, of this chapter).  
  
3.Make two sprays of handmade flowers.
+
'''QUESTIONS'''
  
4. Make two wreaths of artificial flowers. It is a goodidea for this to be DONE IN CONNECTION WITH THE LESSON ON CLEANING AND DYEING. OLDFLOWERS OR CHEAP NEW FLOWERS MAY BE USED.
+
How are original frame shapes made?
  
5.How is a hat designed for an elaborate feather band orbrim?
+
Name the processes involved in making the first buckram frame of a new design.
  
6.Name two admirable trimmings for matrons' Hats.
+
What is the greatest cost element?
  
7.How may A garden hat be made to blend artistically withmany dresses?
+
How may a pressed-frame headsize be made larger?
  
8.How is tinsel ribbon used in embroidery?
+
How may a pressed-frame headsize be made smaller?
  
9.How is APPLIQUÉ embroidery finished?
+
What advantages has a pressed ready-made frame for the home milliner?
  
10.What are the best appliqué materials?
+
Name the frame materials used for hand-stretched frames.
  
11.Make two doll Hats with original Embroidery design.
+
Give the detailed steps used in making a hand-stretched frame.  
  
12.What is the evil, if any, of using aigrettes?
+
What is a dry-molded frame?
  
note, to instructor: This may be made an educativepoint because women ARE largely unconscious of their part in the aigrette industry.
+
. Make a dry-molded frame, doll-size. Copy the shape from a given drawing.
  
 +
. What are the important points in making a wire frame for stretching purposes?
  
 +
. Make two doll-size wire frames for models.
  
[[BooksLowenhatsChapter_13|CHAPTERXIII]]
+
[[BooksLowenhatsChapter3|CHAPTER III]]
  
 
Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.  
 
Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.  
Line 289: Line 177:
 
==Product Links==
 
==Product Links==
  
[[File:AmazonBooksArtfulribbon.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1571200207/thecostumersmani| The Artful Ribbon : Beauties in Bloom]]  The Artful Ribbon : Beauties in Bloom
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[[File:AmazonBooksFromtheneckup.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0941082008/thecostumersmani| From the Neck Up : An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking]]  From the Neck Up : An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking
  
[http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1561583081/thecostumersmani| Ribbon Trims (Embellishment Idea Books): Books]
+
[[File:AmazonBooksCrownsportraits.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385500866/thecostumersmani| Crowns : Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats]]  Crowns : Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats
  
[[File:AmazonBooksIdoveils.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0965081362/thecostumersmani| 'I Do' Veils - So Can You! : A Step-By-Step Guide to Making Bridal Headpieces, Hats, and Veils With Professional Results]]  'I Do' Veils - So Can You! : A Step-By-Step Guide to Making Bridal Headpieces, Hats, and Veils With Professional Results
+
[[File:AmazonBooksHats.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1556708874/thecostumersmani| Hats]]  Hats
  
[[File:AmazonBooksTiara.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0811827178/thecostumersmani| Tiara]]  Tiara
+
[[File:AmazonBooksHatsstylestatus.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500279446/thecostumersmani| Hats : Status, Style and Glamour]]  Hats : Status, Style and Glamour
  
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0914046152/thecostumersmani| Edwardian Hats : The Art of Millinery (1909)]
+
[[File:AmazonBooksClassicmillinerytech.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/157990016X/thecostumersmani| Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats]]  Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats
  
[[File:AmazonBooksVintagehats.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1574320289/thecostumersmani| Vintage Hats & Bonnets 1770-1970 : Identification & Values]]  Vintage Hats & Bonnets 1770-1970 : Identification & Values
+
[[File:AmazonBooksAcenturyofhats.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0785811133/thecostumersmani| The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century]]  The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century

Revision as of 01:18, 23 January 2014

Millinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 2: MOLDED FRAMESMillinery by Jane Loewen, 1925, Chapter 2: MOLDEDFRAMES

1920sLowenhatsFigure99.gif

MOLDED FRAMES

I. MOLDED OR PRESSED FRAMES

Process of manufacture

Cost of manufacture

Advantages of using a pressed frame

Adjustment of pressed frame

To adjust the headsize

To make a mushroom from a sailor

To make a poke from a mushroom

To use a pattern on a pressed frame

I I. HAND-MOLDED FRAMES

Frames of various materials stretchedon wire

Willow

Buckram

Jockey

Elastic net

Rice net or cape net

Crinoline

Process of making a stretched frame

Soaking frame fabric in water

Pinning frame fabric to wire frame

Drying frame fabric on the frame

Removing frame fabric from the mold

How to give variety to shapes stretched on the same frame

How to wire a frame

I I I. BIAS DRY-MOLDED FRAMES

When frames may be molded in this way

Processes

Frame molding in the hand

Dry molding over a frame

QUESTIONS

CHAPTER II

I. MOLDED ORPRESSED FRAMES

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE

The original model for a pressed frame is a wire frame made by the designer (seeChapter I, section I). A model which is to be used for a manufacturer's mold must be avery firm frame closely braced, with any roll or bend perfectly outlined. For an irregularshape an extra, straight brace is usually added between each of the eight ordinarily used,making sixteen straight brace wires. The round braces should be about 1/2 inchapart. The wire model now goes to the molding room, where the block makers make a plastercast or mold from it.

From the plaster cast a wooden mold is whittled or carved. This wooden block is kept instock, as it may be used for shaping straw shapes as they are sewn by makers before sizingand blocking. From the wooden block an hydraulic steel die is made. This consists of twoforms, upper and lower, which fit together like an acorn in its cup. In making the pressedframe buckram or net is soaked in water or a sizing solution and stretched over the heatedlower steel die. The top half of the die is clamped down over it and left until the framematerial is thoroughly dry. At least two men are required to operate this die, or pressmachine. After the frame is pressed, the rough edges extending beyond the die must betrimmed, the headsize cut out, and the edge wired and bound by machine.

COST OF MANUFACTURE

Pressed crowns are made in much the same way as brims. After all the expensive processof mold-making, two men are required to operate the machine on which the frames arepressed. On the average, the first frame made on an hydraulic die costs from $300 to $600.It may readily be seen that an enormous number of frames must be sold before the originalcost is covered. In other words, the thousands of frames that must be sold from one dietend to make the shape a common one. Producers of exclusive millinery prefer to makehand-molded frames or to change the shape of the French frame in order to differentiateit.

ADVANTAGES OF USING A PRESSED FRAME

There are a number of advantages in using a pressed frame. Much expensive labor issaved. It takes almost as much time to prepare a hand-blocked frame as it takes to makethe hat. The cost factor to the hat manufacturer is much less for a machine frame. Themachine frame will stand more unskilled handling than a hand-molded frame. The pressedframe has a smoother and more finished appearance than a handmade frame. To theuninitiated home milliner the hand-modeled frame often seems unfinished and imperfect.They see the rough-appearing surface rather than its beauty of line. Pressed frames may bepurchased from the millinery departments of the large department stores, from thebetter of the $ .50 and $1 stores, and from many of the mail-order houses.

ADJUSTMENT OF PRESSED FRAME

The average pressed shape should be purchased with the idea of changing it to suit theindividual before using it.

1. To adjust the headsize. The headsize may be made larger by slashingthe brim from headsize to edge and inserting a piece of buckram or elastic net. Rip theedge binding and the wire where it is lapped. Pin in the necessary piece ofmaterial. Try on the frame. Adjust the size. Bend the set-in piece at the headsize as theframe headsize is bent. Sew the seams firmly by machine or with a tight backstitch.Replace the edge wire with binding. To make the headsize smaller rip the binding and edgewire joining. slash from edge to headsize and lap until the headsize fits. If the frame isa great deal too large, two slashes - one at the front and one at the back - arenecessary. Too much lapping will throw. the frame out ofshape.

1920sLowenhatsFigure8.gif

Figure 8. To Make a Poke Brim from a Mushroom FrameIllustration a is a plain mushroom brim from which a poke may be cut. In b note the lapped seam C and the dotted line AB for cutting the front.

2. To make a mushroom from a sailor. To make a mushroom from astraight sailor brim cut the brim at the back and front from edge wire to headsize,ripping the edge binding and edge wire. Make a seam which laps very little at theheadsize, but a great deal more at the edge. Taking from the edge and not from theheadsize is what gives the mushroom effect. Trim some width of brim from the front andmore from the back. The conventional mushroom needs to be proportionately narrower infront than a sailor, because when a frame droops it hides the face. A narrow back (seeFigure 8) is always better because, first, a wide drooping effect makes thick-lookingshoulders, and, second, because it interferes with comfort by knocking against coatcollars, car windows, and seat backs.

3. To make a poke from a mushroom. This process is much the same asabove, because the frame is already mushroom. Rip the binding and edge wire. Cut the backfrom edge to headsize. Slant the seam so that the edge laps from one to two inches and theheadsize laps only l/4 inch.

4. To use a pattern on a pressed frame. Many of the mushroom-hatpatterns may be cut from an ordinary pressed-sailor or mushroom frame. Cut off theheadsize slashes of the pattern on the line marked "headsize." Pin thepattern onto the mushroom brim. Mark the correct edge and cut. This does away with thenecessity of wiring a headsize and with the bother of looking for correct frame material.The original edge binding may be replaced. Silk brace wire is more satisfactory for theedge wire. Poke patterns may be cut from mushroom frames in the same way. The importantthing is to get the same slant and the same proportion as the hat pattern so that the samepattern may be used to cut the hat materials.

I I. HAND-MOLDED FRAMES

FRAMES OF VARIOUS MATERIAL STRETCHED ON WIRE

There are a number of frame materials that may satisfactorily be used for stretchingframes. The ones most used are willow, buckram, jockey, elastic net, rice net, andcrinoline.

Willow: See Chapter I, section I.

Buckram: See Chapter I, section I.

Jockey: See Chapter I, section I. Elastic net:See Chapter I, section I. Rice net is a frame material which is as much anet as wire window screening. A thread net held together by sizing (or starch) wouldproperly define it. Cape net is the same thing with finer mesh. Rice net is used forstretching soft crowns and for small brims of very soft ribbon or braid sport hats. Itmakes a softer frame than elastic net. It is sometimes used with a thickness of crinoline.Crinoline is used to stretch soft tam crowns, baby hats, old ladies' bonnets, and withrice net for larger hats. When crinoline and rice net are used together the two materialsare stretched one over the other, pinned separately, but dried and removed together. Thesizing sticks them together so that they hold nicely.

PROCESS OF MAKING A STRETCHED FRAME

1. Soaking frame fabric in water. The first step in stretching ahand-molded frame is to soak the frame material to be used. Each of the fabrics mentionedunder section II of this chapter has a great deal of sizing. This needs only to be wet tobecome pliable. Then it may be stretched over any desired frame and it will dry in thatshape.

2. Pinning frame fabric to the wire frame. Start pinning at the fronton the edge wire. Use a bias corner of the willow. Pin to first one side of the brim, thento the other. Smooth the wet fabric over the wire frame, adding first a pin at the edgewire, then one at the headsize. Cut out a small headsize circle. Slash the materialat the headsize to the lower headsize wire at intervals of 1/2 inch. Do not slash belowthe lower headsize wire. Smooth all fullness out by pulling it out at the edge andheadsize and pushing it backward to the seam. Trim the headsize slashes, leaving onlyenough to pin over the top headsize wire. Do not bend the material over the edge wire.Allow it to extend beyond the wire. Place pins at intervals of one inch.

1920sLowenhatsFigure9.gifFIGURE 9. Pinning the Frame Fabric to the Wire Frame. Be careful not to pull the frame too tightly between the straight brace wires, or the edge wire will lose its contour. There will be an angle on each straight brace at the edge wire. 3. Drying frame fabric on the frame. Hang the stretched frame up to dry above a hot radiator or in a window, if you want it to dry quickly. A good idea for class work is to stretch the frames in one lesson that are to be used for the next day. Then they may stand overnight. A frame must be thoroughly dried before it is removed from the wire mold

1920sLowenhatsFigure10.gifFIGURE 10. Original Frame. A Rolled Brim Made from the Dimensions Given in Chapter I, Section IV

4. Removing fabric frame from the mold. When the frame isthoroughly dry, mark edge wire, headsize wire, and seam with a pencil. Pull out the pinsfrom edge and headsize. Place them in a separate box to be used for frames only. Thestarch on them will mark silk or velvet. Loosen the frame carefully at both edge andheadsize.

1920sLowenhatsFigure11.gifFIGURE 11. The Same Frame Made into a Tricorn. Remove a little at a time so as not to stretch it out of shape. Trim the back seam andlap it as it was marked if the headsize is the correct size. The headsize may be adjustedas for a pressed brim (see Chapter II, section I). Cut headsize and wire edge at thepencil mark.

1920sLowenhatsFigure12.gifFIGURE 12. The Frame Made into a Square-Edge Tricorn. 5. How to give variety to shapes stretched on the same frame. If awire mold has a good headsize roll as.well as a becoming brim line, it may be changed in avariety of ways.

1920sLowenhatsFigure13.gifFIGURE 13. Finishing the Headsize with Ribbon Wire. The brim may be merely cut smaller. It may be slashed at the side, or it may be cut togive an entirely different effect (see illustration, Figures 11 and 12).

6. To wire a frame. For the headsize, cut a half-inch bias band of dryframe material. Join this in a circle the same size as the brim headsize. Wire the lowerheadsize with brace wire, using a blanket stitch. Lap the ends of the wire two inches.Shape the circle of frame material and wire into an oval. Slip this over the brim headsizewith the unwired edge up. Sew the oval to the slashes, using two rows of backstitching,one just above the wire and one at the top edge. Straighten the wire for the edge byrunning the thumb and forefinger over it lengthwise, using the cushion part of the finger,not the tips. When the curve is thus worked out of the wire, buttonhole it to the top edgeof the frame (edge-wire Figure 18), taking very tight stitches about three fourths of aninch long and only one sixteenth of an inch in from the edge. Lap the ends of the wire twoand one-half inches and sew down firmly. Bind the edge with a three-fourths-inch biasstrip of muslin or flannel. Sew with long, tight, running stitches and stretch.

I I I. BIAS DRY-MOLDED FRAMES

WHEN FRAMES MAY BE MOLDED THIS WAY

If a frame turns up straight from the face instead of flaring out in a wide brim, thereis less sewing in fitting the material. Often a bias may be stretched to fit it. A chinchin sailor, a rolled sailor, and many turbans may be stretched from a bias of elastic net,soft willow, or double crinoline. If a frame can be stretched without wetting thematerial, the process is not only much shorter, because of the soaking and drying processeliminated, but it is much more tidy. The soaking method necessitates the use of manythicknesses of newspaper or rubber work-aprons to protect dresses from wet framematerials.

PROCESSES

1. Frame molding in the hand. There are wonderful possibilities formaking rolled brims in the hand without a mold. Make a half-inch willow headsize band asfor a stretched frame, or use a band of ribbon wire. Sew one edge of bias elastic net (thewidth determined by the height or width of the hat brim) inside the headsize. Curve thebias upward as you sew and crowd the material close to make it roll. Elastic net ispreferable, but soft willow answers the purpose. If width at the sides is desired, or apoint or decided angle anywhere, cut the bias and lap it two or three inches at theheadsize, allowing it to flare to a small seam at the edge.

1920sLowenhatsFigure14.gifFIGURE 14. Dry Molding Bias-Frame Material over a Wire Frame.

2. Dry molding over a frame (see Figure 14). Bias net orwillow may be stretched over wire molds without soaking, whenever the curve of the frameis such that there is no fullness left, or whenever the angle up from the face is verydecided. Often this means more than one seam. The extra seams are usually on the brimangle. The stretching, removing, and wiring process is the same as for a wet frame (seesection II, of this chapter).

QUESTIONS

How are original frame shapes made?

Name the processes involved in making the first buckram frame of a new design.

What is the greatest cost element?

How may a pressed-frame headsize be made larger?

How may a pressed-frame headsize be made smaller?

What advantages has a pressed ready-made frame for the home milliner?

Name the frame materials used for hand-stretched frames.

Give the detailed steps used in making a hand-stretched frame.

What is a dry-molded frame?

. Make a dry-molded frame, doll-size. Copy the shape from a given drawing.

. What are the important points in making a wire frame for stretching purposes?

. Make two doll-size wire frames for models.

CHAPTER III

Millinery, by Jane Loewen 1925. Scanning and OCR by Karen Wood,layout by Karen Wood and Tara Maginnis.

Product Links

From the Neck Up : An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking From the Neck Up : An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking

Crowns : Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats Crowns : Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats

Hats Hats

Hats : Status, Style and Glamour Hats : Status, Style and Glamour

Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats Classic Millinery Techniques : A Complete Guide to Making & Designing Today's Hats

The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century The Century of Hats : Headturning Style of the Twentieth Century

"The Costumer's Manifesto"
by Tara Maginnis