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Notes to Chapter I:

Mary Ellen Diehl, How to Produce a Fashion Show (New York: Fairchild, 1976) 8.

Ebony Fashion Fair Magazine 1988-1989 (Chicago: Johnson, 1988) 12, 30-1.

Thelma Hunt Shirley, Success Guide to Fashion Shows (Chicago: Fashion Imprints, 1978) 131.

Geoffrey Gorer, Hot Strip Tease: And Other Notes on American Culture (London: Cresset, 1937) 77.

"Stores Prove Wonderlands," The San Francisco Call 4 mar. 1911: 10.

Gorer, 43-4.

Stripper, dir. by Jerome Gary, Prod. Arnon Milchan, International Pictures Inc., 1986.

Morton Minsky and Milt Macklin, Minsky's Burlesque (New York: Arbor, 1986) 97-8.

"Actresses In Fashion Show," The New York Times 8 Oct. 1915: 11.

"Handsome Gowns on Living Models Tempt Visitors," The San Francisco Call 6 Sept. 1912: 12.

Diehl, 82.

Minsky, 51.

Minsky, 51.

Rowland Barber, The Night They Raided Minsky's (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960) 200-1.

A notable exception to this was the 1991 Miss America 70th Anniversary Pageant televised in September 1990. On that occasion the production numbers spilled out onto the runway, and included 29 former Miss Americas, the hosts Gary Collins and Miss America 1971 Phyllis George, and special guest Bert Parks. Interestingly the male lead singer and male "Miss America Dancers" in the production numbers did not use the runway. But Bert Parks, did, for the record, sing "There She Is" to the 29 former Miss Americas as he walked between them down the runway--a Miss America first.

Frank Deford, There She Is: The Life And Times of Miss America (New York: Viking, 1971) 227.

Deford, 278.

Corinth states: "The word 'mannequin,' meaning someone who wears a garment to show how it looks, was first used at the House of Worth. A reporter for La Vie Parisienne visited Worth one day with a companion who asked to have someone put on a dress so she could see the effect. A vendeuse obliged. The reporter later wrote an article about the visit, titling it 'Entree de Mlle. Mannequin.' Until that time, the word 'mannequin' referred only to a dummy or dress stand." (14).

Helen Fraser, Assignment in Modeling (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950) 219.

Jacque Mercer, How to Win a Beauty Contest (Phoenix: Curran, 1960) 106, 110.

1990 Judges Committee Manual; For Official Miss America Preliminary Pageants (Atlantic City: The Miss America Organization, 1989) 8-9.

Marie Leaser Farris and Verna Meer Slade, The Beauty Pageant Manual: A Complete Training Guide (Atlanta: Pageant Manual, 1987) 102.

"Fashion Forecast: Suiting Up For The 90's," Pageantry Spr. 1990: 4-5.

This fact is too widely acknowledged to give a single source for this statement. Alexander noted in the Thirties that "Some girls sew their own costumes. Madge Carmille has a tiny machine she takes everywhere with her..." and that a stripper "buys her own wardrobe and she has to have changes every week." During this time Gypsy Rose Lee claimed to have made all her own costumes, as did Tempest Storm and Blaze Starr in the Fifties. Strippers "Misty" and Lauri Lewin in the Seventies also claim to have provided their own costumes, although Lewin claims to have bought her wardrobe from vintage clothing stores and only altered them to fit. The girls in the Eighties documentary Stripper also mostly appear to be providing their own costumes. Sara Costa and her mother are seen shopping for accessories and sewing her wardrobe. And stitching strippers and sewing machines are present in the background of several scenes, seemingly too ordinary a sight to merit special attention of their own.



Ann Corio and Joseph Di Mona, This Was Burlesque (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1968) 105.

Corio, 99.

Corio, 103.

Corio, 103.

Corio, 104.

Irving Zeidman, The American Burlesque Show (New York: Hawthorne, 1967) 157.

Zeidman, 149.

Zeidman, 148.


Lois Banner, American Beauty (New York: Knopf, 1983) 269-70.

Farris, 1.

Geoffrey Dunn and Mark Schwartz (directors), Miss...or Myth?, produced by Dunn, Schwartz and Claire Rubach. Gold Mountain Productions, 1987. Distributed by the Cinema Guild (New York).

Ann Simonton, At Issue: Do Beauty Pageants Have Value? (P.M. Editorial Services, 1989).

Kathrin Perutz, Beyond The Looking Glass; America's Beauty Culture (New York: Morrow, 1970) 214-15.

Deidre English, "The Politics of Porn, Can Feminists Walk the Line?," The Best of Mother Jones (San Francisco: Foundation for National Progress, 1985) 52.

Fraser, 230.

Lucy Duff-Gordon, ["Lucille"], Discretions And Indiscretions (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1932) 78.

Hart Crane, The Complete Poems And Selected Letters And Prose of Hart Crane (New York: Liveright, 1933) 100.

Barbara Peterson Burwell and Polly Peterson Bowles, Becoming A Beauty Queen: The Complete Guide (New York: Prentice Hall, 1987) xvii.

G. and C. Merriam Co., Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1956) 411.

Actually the E-string is narrowest, however there are two E-strings on a violin, and one is also the widest, hence the choice of G-string to indicate a narrow strip of fabric. In Lady of Burlesque the film based on Gypsy Rose Lee's book The G-String Murders, Barbara Stanwyck in the lead, sang a musical number entitled "Take it Off the E-String, Put it On the G-String."

John Elsom, Erotic Theatre (New York: Taplinger, 1974) 171-73.

H.M. Alexander, Striptease: The Vanished Art of Burlesque (New York; Newmarket, 1987) 97.

Banner, 264.

Susan Dworkin, Miss America 1945; Bess Myerson's Own Story (New York; Newmarket, 1987) 97.

Farris, 50.

Farris, 116.

Kay Corinth, Fashion Showmanship (New York: Wiley, 1970) 17.

Diehl, 7.

Shirley, 131.

Earle Ernst, The Kabuki Theatre (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960) 201.

Leonard Cabell Pronko, Theatre East and West: Perspectives Towards a Total Theatre (Berkeley: U of California P, 1967) 142.

James Roose-Evans, Experimental Theatre; From Stanislavski To Today (New York: Universe, 1970) 55-58.

Deford, 225.

Elsom, xiv.

Helen Bullitt Lowry, "Rude Intrusion of Facts Into Fashions," New York Times 1 Aug. 1920: III-15.

Lowry, "Rude," III-15.


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