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Notes to Chapter IIIFashion Shows, Strip Shows and BeautyPageants:

The Theatre of The Feminine Ideal

by

TARA MAGINNIS

Notes to Chapter III:

. Georg Mehlis, "The Aesthetic Problem of Distance" in Suzanne K. Langer, ed,Reflections on Art (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1958) 88.

. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City: Doubleday,1959) 17.

. Robert Ezra Park, Race and Culture (Glencoe, Ill: The Free Press, 1950) 249.

. Goffman, Self 32-3.

. "Plenty of Pockets," 5.

. Lowry, "Rude," 15.

. Carol Lynn, Modeling for Money (New York: Greenberg, 1937) 20-1.

. Jean Dawnay, Model Girl (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1956) 143.

. Ellen Steese, "Through The Looking Glass," The Christian Science Monitor 14Nov. 1986: 31.

. Bob Weinstein, Breaking In to Modeling: A Guide For Beginners (New York: Arco, 1983)6.

. John T. Molloy, Molloy's Live for Success (Toronto: Perigord, 1981) 36.

. Bernie Lenz, The Complete Book of Fashion Modeling (New York: Crown, 1969) 23.

. Molloy, 36.

. Lenz, 30.

. Lenz, 27.

. Lenz, 49.

. Lenz, 27.

. Mark Stevens, Model (New York: Harper and Row, 1981) 75.

. Stevens, 18. . Susan Wood Gearhart, Opportunities in Modeling Careers (Lincolnwood:National Textbook Co., 1984) 12-13.

. Stevens, 50-1.

. Stevens, 12.

. Susan Faludi, "Miss Teen Covina's Revenge," Mother Jones April 1988: 34,52.

. Faludi, 53-4.

. Faludi, 54.

. Lynn Snowden, "Esme: Behind the Smile, a Pretty Model's Gritty Story,"Mademoiselle Jun. 1990: 216.

. R. L. Palmer, Anorexia Nervosa; A Guide For Sufferers and Their Families(Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980) 24.

. Stevens, 5.

. Jane Fonda, Jane Fonda's Workout Book (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981) 15-16.

. Sharon Greene Patton, Stop Dieting-Start Living (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1982) 66.

. According to Patton, "The latest studies find no link between overweight and early death; In fact, they reveal that the risk of early death is greater for under- weight people than for overweight people. One study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that mortality decreased with increasing weight for men between 40 and 69 years old. This same study also found that mortality among women in the same age group was highest in the thinnest weight groups. One of the reasons for this, the study suggested, was that people with some fat reserves are better able to fight off diseases than are thin people... A study by the Department of Community Health at Northwestern University found that moderate overweight was a sign of good health: `Weights associated with greatest longevity were a whopping 25 to 35 percent above the insurance company's recommendations. Men closest to the `ideal' weights and those markedly obese showed a greater risk of mortality.' There is even some evidence that thin people die earlier than extremely fat people. A study of 5,000 Framington, Massachusetts residents demonstrated that the thinnest people had higher death rates than those who were the most overweight." (78).

. The Spectator, pseud. "New Paris Fashions Shown on Living Models," TheOutlook 22 Nov. 1913: 673-4.

. James K. Skipper Jr. and Charles H. McCaghy, "Stripteasing: a Sex OrientedOccupation," Studies in the Sociology of Sex, ed. James M. Henslin (New York:Meredith, 1971) 278-9.

. Carey, Peterson and Sharpe include the following table in "Recruitment," (16).

Mean Body Measurements Height Weight Bust Waist Hips

Go-go Girls 5'5" 122 34.6 24 35.3 (N = 35)

College Girls 5'3.6" 118.8 32.3 24 34.6 (N = 97)

Strippers 5'7" 130 38 25 38.25 (N = 35)

Playboy Playmates 5'5" 117 36.25 22 35.50 (N = 179)

Average Women 5'4" 126.2 34 25.8 36.9 (N = 355) -----------------------------------------------------------

Data on Strippers, Playmates and Average women is from Skipper and McCaghy .

Sandra Harley Carey, Robert A. Peterson and Louis K. Sharpe, "A Study ofRecruitment and Socialization into Two Deviant Female Occupations," SociologicalSymposium v 11, Spr 1974: 18-22.

. Kenneth Clark, The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form (Garden City: Doubleday, 1956) 23-5. .Clark, 29.

. Lauri Lewin, Naked is the Best Disguise: My Life as a Stripper (New York: Morrow,1984) 56-7.

. Starr, 90.

. "Misty," 119.

. Clark, 25.

. Advertisement, The San Francisco Chronicle 5 Apr. 1990: E-5.

. Tom Wolfe, "The Put Together Girl," The Pumphouse Gang (New York: Bantam,1968) 66-7.

. Alexander, 43-4.

. Corio, 74.

. Starr, 98.

. Starr, 108.

. Starr, 107.

. Starr, 108-9.

. Ayalah, 77.

. Eric Lee Preminger, Gypsy and Me (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1984) 66.

. Corio, 78.

. Roswell Angier, "...A Kind of Life." Conversations in the Combat Zone(Danbury: Addison 1973) 48.

. Kelly O'Brian, "My Short-Lived Career as a Stripper" in Cosmopolitan Sept.1987, v. 203: 202-4.

. O'Brian, 204.

. Ayalah, 72.

. Ayalah, 87.

. Ayalah, 87.

. Charles H. McCaghy and James K. Skipper, Jr., "Lesbian Behavior as an Adaptationto the Occupation of Stripping," Deviant Behavior: Occupational and OrganizationalBases (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1974) 158.

. McCaghy, "Lesbian," 159.

. Miller, 167.

. Ann Rampling, [Anne Rice], Exit to Eden (New York: Arbor House 1985) 268-71.

. Stripper.

. Pam Eldred, "What's It Really Like Being Miss America?," Pageants andTalent Fall 1989: 35.

. Judges, 8.

. Deford, 76-7.

. "Negress in 3D Place, Beauty Contest is Off," The New York Times 5 Apr.1924: 18.

. "Beauty Contest On Again," New York Times 6 Apr. 1924: 25.

. John Stark and Michael Alexander, "Ex-Miss America Vanessa Williams OvercomesHer Disgrace By Showing and Singing The Right Stuff," People Weekly 30 Jan. 1989: 48.

Geoffrey Dunn and Mark Schwartz (directors), Miss...or Myth?, produced by Dunn, Schwartz and Claire Rubach. Gold Mountain Productions, 1987. Distributed by the Cinema Guild (New York).

. Ann Trebbe and Valerie Helmbreck "`Ideal' is Body Beautiful and `CleanCut'," USA TODAY 15 Sep. 1989: 1A-2A.

. Rita Freedman, Beauty Bound (Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1986) 51-2.

. "Nature & Art," The New York Times 10 Sep. 1922: II-6.

. "Beauty Fete Ready at Atlantic City," The New York Times 6 Sep. 1922: 10.

. "Most Beautiful Girl Avoids All Cosmetics," The New York Times 13, Sep.1922: 14.

. "This, Too, Was Once `Un-American'," The New York Times 30 Nov. 1923: 14.

. Pam Eldred, "On Beauty: Pageant Makeup," Pageants and Talent Winter 1989:13.

. Ivana Chubbuck, "Fashion Milestone: Miss USA Decides To Allow Padding,"T.V. Guide 24 Feb. 1990: 41.

. Joanna Elm, "This Year's Contender," T.V. Guide 14 Apr. 1990: 25.

. Juleanne R. Lowman, "Miracles Can Happen," Pageantry Spring 1990: 26.

Geoffrey Dunn and Mark Schwartz (directors), Miss...or Myth?, produced by Dunn, Schwartz and Claire Rubach. Gold Mountain Productions, 1987. Distributed by the Cinema Guild (New York).

.Geoffrey Dunn and Mark Schwartz (directors), Miss...or Myth?, produced by Dunn, Schwartz and Claire Rubach. Gold Mountain Productions, 1987. Distributed by the Cinema Guild (New York).

Geoffrey Dunn and Mark Schwartz (directors), Miss...or Myth?, produced by Dunn, Schwartz and Claire Rubach. Gold Mountain Productions, 1987. Distributed by the Cinema Guild (New York).

. "Fall Carnival Holds Sway in Atlantic City," The New York Times 6 Sep.1923: 28.

. Lynn Norment, "Here She Is! Miss America, Black, Beautiful, Brainy, andBorn-Again," Ebony Dec. 1989: 132.

. Farris, 121.

. Farris, 122-3.

. Farris, 123-7.

. Deford, 184.

. Linden Gross, "Miss America, Who Is She Really?," McCall's Oct. 1988:131-4.

. McElwaine, 220-1.

. Anna Stanley, The Crowning Touch: Preparing for Beauty Pageant Competition (SanDiego: Box of Ideas, 1989) 11.

. Michael Neill and Dirk Mathison, "Pageant Officials are Calling Michele AndersonEvery Name in the Book Except Miss California," People Magazine 4 Jul. 1988: 36.

. Michelle Anderson, "Beauty Queen Says End Reign of Tiara," Ms. MagazineSep. 1988: 65.

. Deford, 6-7.

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