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Difference between pages "History100pagesOccupationaluniforms" and "History100pagesOscar wilde on dress"

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The Costumer's Manifesto: Non-Military Uniforms, Occasion Specific Dress andOccupational Dress Links
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Oscar Wilde on Dress Reform Articles from The Woman
  
'''Non-Military Uniforms, Occasion Specific Dress and Occupational Dress Links'''
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[[File:FashiondressImagesWilde.jpg]]''"One should either be a work of art, or wear a work of art."'Oscar Wilde on Fashion and Dress Reform
  
See also
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'''Articles from ''The Woman's World'' 1888-1890
  
[[History100pagesMilitaryuniforms|Military Dress ]]Links,  
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''"Fashion is what one wears oneself, and
  
[[History100pagesReligious_costume|Religious Dress ]]Links,
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what is unfashionable is what other people wear"''
  
[[History100pagesBridal|Wedding Dress]] Links,
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[[File:FashiondressImagesOscar.gif]](Text provided by
  
[[Store100pagesKinky|Kink & Fetish]] Links''
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[http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/doc/gutenberg|ProjectGutenberg e-Texts)]
  
This symbol indicates an internal page of the Manifesto''
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[[ManifestoHistory#SLAVES OF FASHION|SLAVES OF FASHION]]
  
(Anglo-centric take on Traditional dress for court, clergy, etc.) Academic Dress
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[[ManifestoHistory#WOMAN'S DRESS|WOMAN'S DRESS]]
  
[http://www.burgon.org.uk/|The Burgon Society Founded to promote the study of Academical Dress]
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[[ManifestoHistory#MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM|MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM]]
  
[[History100pages1803cambridge|Costumes Worn at the University of Cambridge in 1803]]
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[[ManifestoHistory#COSTUME|COSTUME]]
  
[http://home.uchicago.edu/~atterlep/costuming/academic%20clothing.htm|A Brief Introduction to English Academic Costume]
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[[ManifestoHistory#MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM]]
  
[http://www.yoursash.com/|Graduation Stoles & Sashes for 2008 Grads & Greeks - YourSash.com]
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==SLAVES OF FASHION==
  
[http://www.fact-index.com/a/ac/academic_dress_of_oxford_university.html|Academic dress of Oxford University]
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Miss Leffler-Arnim's statement, in a lecture delivered recently atSt. Saviour's Hospital, that "she had heard of instances whereladies were so determined not to exceed the fashionable measurementthat they had actually held on to a cross-bar while their maidsfastened the fifteen-inch corset," has excited a good deal ofincredulity, but there is nothing really improbable in it. Fromthe sixteenth century to our own day there is hardly any form oftorture that has not been inflicted on girls, and endured by women,in obedience to the dictates of an unreasonable and monstrousFashion. "In order to obtain a real Spanish figure," says Montaigne, "what a Gehenna of suffering will not women endure,drawn in and compressed by great coches entering the flesh; nay,
  
[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_11ATQcAvo|YouTube - University Procession on Degree Day, Birmingham (1901) ] Showing the first female graduates.  
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sometimes they even die thereof!" "A few days after my arrival atschool," Mrs. Somerville tells us in her memoirs, "althoughperfectly straight and well made, I was enclosed in stiff stays,with a steel busk in front; while above my frock, bands drew myshoulders back till the shoulder-blades met. Then a steel rod witha semi-circle, which went under my chin, was clasped to the steelbusk in my stays. In this constrained state I and most of theyounger girls had to prepare our lessons"; and in the life of MissEdgeworth we read that, being sent to a certain fashionableestablishment, "she underwent all the usual tortures of back-boards, iron collars and dumbs, and also (because she was a verytiny person) the unusual one of being hung by the neck to draw outthe muscles and increase the growth," a signal failure in her case.Indeed, instances of absolute mutilation and misery are so commonin the past that it is unnecessary to multiply them; but it isreally sad to think that in our own day a civilized woman can hangon to a cross-bar while her maid laces her waist into a fifteen-inch circle. To begin with, the waist is not a circle at all, butan oval; nor can there be any greater error than to imagine that anunnaturally small waist gives an air of grace, or even ofslightness, to the whole figure. Its effect, as a rule, is simplyto exaggerate the width of the shoulders and the hips; and thosewhose figures possess that stateliness which is called stoutness by
  
[[History100pages1898cuttersguide9a|The Cutter's Practical Guide to Jacket Cutting and Making, Embracing Lounges, Reefers & Patrol Jackets, in all their Varieties, Also Including the Cutting and Making of Robes and Gowns (1898)]]
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the vulgar, convert what is a quality into a defect by yielding tothe silly edicts of Fashion on the subject of tight-lacing. Thefashionable English waist, also, is not merely far too small, andconsequently quite out of proportion to the rest of the figure, butit is worn far too low down. I use the expression "worn"advisedly, for a waist nowadays seems to be regarded as an articleof apparel to be put on when and where one likes. A long waistalways implies shortness of the lower limbs, and, from the artisticpoint of view, has the effect of diminishing the height; and I amglad to see that many of the most charming women in Paris arereturning to the idea of the Directoire style of dress. This styleis not by any means perfect, but at least it has the merit ofindicating the proper position of the waist. I feel quite surethat all English women of culture and position will set their faces
  
[http://www.lartisan-costumier.com/universites.php|toges, toges universitaires, toges universités par l'Artisan Costumier]
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against such stupid and dangerous practices as are related by Miss Leffler-Arnim. Fashion's motto is: Il faut souffrir pour etrebelle; but the motto of art and of common-sense is: Il faut etrebete pour souffrir.
  
[http://www.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/a_dress.htm|Academical Dress]
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[[File:AmazonVideoImportbeangearnest.jpg|SLAVES OF FASHION]]
  
[[File:AmazonBooks5Univoflondacademdress.jpg]]
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[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0792844629/thecostumersmani| The Importance of Being Earnest]
  
[http://www.burgon.org.uk/]
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[[File:AmazonVideoWilde.gif]]
  
[http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/tg/stores/detail/glance/-/books/0718716086/202-5706890-2595009|Amazon.co.uk: At a glance: University of London Academic Dress]
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[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0767814932/thecostumersmani| Wilde]
  
[http://www.phildress.co.uk/|Phildress Books: University of London Academic Dress] (more about the above book)
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[[File:h.t| Theatre and Fashion : Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes]]
  
[http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/a_dress.htm|Academical Dress]
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[[File:h.t| Dandies : Fashion and Finesse in Art and Culture]]
  
[http://www.edeandravenscroft.co.uk/|Ede and Ravenscroft Homepage]
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[[File:h.t| Peacock Jacket]]
  
[http://www.shepherdandwoodward.co.uk/acatalog/index.htm|Shepherd & Woodward Ltd]
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[[File:AmazonBooks8Fashandwomensatt19thcent.gif]]
 
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[http://www.shepherdandwoodward.co.uk/acatalog/S___W_Ltd__Shepherd___Woodward___Academic_Department_5.html|Shepherd & Woodward Ltd Academic Dept.]
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[[File:AmazonBooksMenofcolor.gif]]
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[[File:h.t]]
 
[[File:h.t]]
  
("Plain" dress in America)
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Talking of Fashion, a critic in the Pall Mall Gazelle expresses hissurprise that I should have allowed an illustration of a hat,
  
[[File:AmazonBooksNewraiments.gif]]
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covered with "the bodies of dead birds," to appear in the first
  
[[File:h.t]]
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number of the Woman's World; and as I have received many letters onthe subject, it is only right that I should state my exact positionin the matter. Fashion is such an essential part of the mundusmuliebris of our day, that it seems to me absolutely necessary thatits growth, development, and phases should be duly chronicled; andthe historical and practical value of such a record dependsentirely upon its perfect fidelity to fact. Besides, it is quiteeasy for the children of light to adapt almost any fashionable formof dress to the requirements of utility and the demands of goodtaste. The Sarah Bernhardt tea-gown, for instance, figured in thepresent issue, has many good points about it, and the giganticdress-improver does not appear to me to be really essential to themode; and though the Postillion costume of the fancy dress ball isabsolutely detestable in its silliness and vulgarity, the so-calledLate Georgian costume in the same plate is rather pleasing. Imust, however, protest against the idea that to chronicle thedevelopment of Fashion implies any approval of the particular formsthat Fashion may adopt.
  
[[File:h.t]]
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==WOMAN'S DRESS==
  
[http://www.acenet.edu/faq/costume_code.html|Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide]
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The "Girl Graduate" must of course have precedence, not merely forher sex but for her sanity: her letter is extremely sensible. Shemakes two points: that high heels are a necessity for any lady whowishes to keep her dress clean from the Stygian mud of our streets,and that without a tight corset the ordinary number of petticoatsand etceteras' cannot be properly or conveniently held up. Now, itis quite true that as long as the lower garments are suspended fromthe hips a corset is an absolute necessity; the mistake lies in notsuspending all apparel from the shoulders. In the latter case acorset becomes useless, the body is left free and unconfined forrespiration and motion, there is more health, and consequently morebeauty. Indeed all the most ungainly and uncomfortable articles of
  
[http://www.ryderamies.co.uk/|Ryder and Amies University Outfitting (UK)]
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dress that fashion has ever in her folly prescribed, not the tight
  
[http://www.harcourts.com|Harcourt's Home Page Academic gowns, Legal attire and Clerical Vestments]
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corset merely, but the farthingale, the vertugadin, the hoop, the
  
[http://search.ebay.com/_W0QQgotopageZ1QQsassZalagirl1961QQsosortorderZ1QQsosortpropertyZ1|eBay - , Academic Uniforms, Women's Accessories Handbags, and Fiction Books items at low prices]
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crinoline, and that modern monstrosity the so-called "dress
  
[http://www.murphyrobes.com|Judicial Robes and Academic Robes]
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improver" also, all of them have owed their origin to the same
  
[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/academic_dress|Yahoo! Groups : academic dress]
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error, the error of not seeing that it is from the shoulders, and
  
[http://chronicle.com/colloquy/98/fashion/background.htm|College Professor Fashion Conformity] (Non uniform working clothes)
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from the shoulders only, that all garments should be hung.
  
[http://www.acenet.edu/faq/costume_code.html|Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide]
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And as regards high heels, I quite admit that some additional
  
[http://home.uchicago.edu/~atterlep/costuming/academic%20clothing.htm|A Brief Introduction to English Academic Costume]
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height to the shoe or boot is necessary if long gowns are to be
  
[http://www.st-and.ac.uk/services/registry/gradress.htm|Academic Costume]
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worn in the street; but what I object to is that the height should
  
[http://www.robeshop.com/|Robes: Choir, Pulpit, Cap & Gown, Academic, Judicial, Kindergrad]
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be given to the heel only, and not to the sole of the foot also.
  
[http://costume.dm.net/Tailors/|The Milanese Tailor's Album-Men's Clothing (Includes pictures and patterns of Doctors Robes of the late 16th Century)]
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The modern high-heeled boot is, in fact, merely the clog of the
  
[http://www.gaspard.ca/grad/grad.htm|Graduation Regalia]
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time of Henry VI., with the front prop left out, and its inevitable
  
[http://www.robes.com/index.cfm?action=browsertest|Collegiate Apparel: Robe or Robes and Accessories by Collegiate Apparel - Robes.com:]
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effect is to throw the body forward, to shorten the steps, and
  
[http://www.capandgown.com/|Graduation Cap, Gown, Tassel for Kindergarten, Preschool,Junior High, High School, and College by Collegiate Cap & Gown]
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consequently to produce that want of grace which always followswant of freedom.
  
[http://www.nbc5.com/education/3300420/detail.html|NBC5.com - Education - Cross-Dressing Teacher Loses Job]
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Why should clogs be despised? Much art has been expended on clogs.They have been made of lovely woods, and delicately inlaid withivory, and with mother-of-pearl. A clog might be a dream ofbeauty, and, if not too high or too heavy, most comfortable also.But if there be any who do not like clogs, let them try someadaptation of the trouser of the Turkish lady, which is loose roundthe limb and tight at the ankle.
  
[http://www.nbc5.com/education/3306916/detail.html|NBC5.com - Education - School Enforces Dress Code -- For Teachers]
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The "Girl Graduate," with a pathos to which I am not insensible,
  
[http://www.nbc5.com/education/2843826/detail.html|NBC5.com - Education - Art Teacher Suspended After Student Poses In Boxers]
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entreats me not to apotheosize "that awful, befringed, beflounced,and bekilted divided skirt." Well, I will acknowledge that thefringes, the flounces, and the kilting do certainly defeat thewhole object of the dress, which is that of ease and liberty; but Iregard these things as mere wicked superfluities, tragic proofsthat the divided skirt is ashamed of its own division. The
  
[http://www.academicapparel.com/caps/regalia.html|Academic Apparel: Academic Regalia]
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principle of the dress is good, and, though it is not by any meansperfection, it is a step towards it.
  
[http://www.gnms.com/robes/robes.htm|Robes: Choir, Pulpit, Kids' Choir, Academic, Judicial, Children's Ceremony]
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Here I leave the "Girl Graduate," with much regret, for Mr.
  
[http://www.collegegear.com/sf/stores/1180/p-46991.shtml|Harvard Shop - Harvard University | Harvard Tie - Navy | Powered by CollegeGear.com]
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Wentworth Huyshe. Mr. Huyshe makes the old criticism that Greekdress is unsuited to our climate, and, to me the somewhat newassertion, that the men's dress of a hundred years ago waspreferable to that of the second part of the seventeenth century,which I consider to have been the exquisite period of Englishcostume.
  
[http://www.pressedmetal.net/schoolring_stoneset.html|Signet Rings - Pressed Metal Products, Vancouver, B.C.]
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Now, as regards the first of these two statements, I will say, to
  
[http://www.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/gown_rep.htm|Reporter References for Festal Academical Dress]
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begin with, that the warmth of apparel does not depend really onthe number of garments worn, but on the material of which they aremade. One of the chief faults of modern dress is that it iscomposed of far too many articles of clothing, most of which are ofthe wrong substance; but over a substratum of pure wool, such as issupplied by Dr. Jaeger under the modern German system, somemodification of Greek costume is perfectly applicable to our climate, our country and our century. This important fact hasalready been pointed out by Mr. E. W. Godwin in his excellent,though too brief handbook on Dress, contributed to the HealthExhibition. I call it an important fact because it makes almostany form of lovely costume perfectly practicable in our cold climate. Mr. Godwin, it is true, points out that the Englishladies of the thirteenth century abandoned after some time theflowing garments of the early Renaissance in favour of a tightermode, such as Northern Europe seems to demand. This I quite admit,and its significance; but what I contend, and what I am sure Mr.Godwin would agree with me in, is that the principles, the laws ofGreek dress may be perfectly realized, even in a moderately tightgown with sleeves: I mean the principle of suspending all apparel from the shoulders, and of relying for beauty of effect not on the
  
[http://www.ggu.edu/services/student_affairs/student_life/costum.html|Commencement Academic Costume]
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stiff ready-made ornaments of the modern milliner--the bows wherethere should be no bows, and the flounces where there should be noflounces--but on the exquisite play of light and line that one getsfrom rich and rippling folds. I am not proposing any antiquarianrevival of an ancient costume, but trying merely to point out theright laws of dress, laws which are dictated by art and not byarchaeology, by science and not by fashion; and just as the bestwork of art in our days is that which combines classic grace withabsolute reality, so from a continuation of the Greek principles ofbeauty with the German principles of health will come, I feelcertain, the costume of the future.
  
[http://www.surrey.ac.uk/Corporate/robes.html|University of Surrey - Academic Dress]
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And now to the question of men's dress, or rather to Mr. Huyshe'sclaim of the superiority, in point of costume, of the last quarterof the eighteenth century over the second quarter of the
  
[http://www.anu.edu.au/cabs/cresolns/acadress.html|ANU CABS Council Resolution on Academic Dress]
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seventeenth. The broad-brimmed hat of 1640 kept the rain of winterand the glare of summer from the face; the same cannot be said ofthe hat of one hundred years ago, which, with its comparativelynarrow brim and high crown, was the precursor of the modern"chimney-pot": a wide turned-down collar is a healthier thing thana strangling stock, and a short cloak much more comfortable than asleeved overcoat, even though the latter may have had "three capes"; a cloak is easier to put on and off, lies lightly on theshoulder in summer, and wrapped round one in winter keeps oneperfectly warm. A doublet, again, is simpler than a coat andwaistcoat; instead of two garments one has one; by not being openalso it protects the chest better.
  
[http://nativenet.uthscsa.edu/archive/ne/97a/0112.html|NAT-EDU mailing list: Re: Graduation dress--A VICTORY!!]
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Short loose trousers are in every way to be preferred to the tight
  
[http://nativenet.uthscsa.edu/archive/ne/97a/0111.html|NAT-EDU mailing list: Re: ABQ schools fight traditional dress]
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knee-breeches which often impede the proper circulation of the
  
[http://www.unimelb.edu.au/ExecServ/Statutes/r126r1.htm|R12.6.R1 - Academic Dress]
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blood; and finally, the soft leather boots which could be worn
  
[http://www.brunel.ac.uk/admin/registry/blakbook/SenateOrdinances/so6.shtml|Senate Ordinance No. 6]
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above or below the knee, are more supple, and give consequentlymore freedom, than the stiff Hessian which Mr. Huyshe so praises.I say nothing about the question of grace and picturesqueness, forI suppose that no one, not even Mr. Huyshe, would prefer amaccaroni to a cavalier, a Lawrence to a Vandyke, or the thirdGeorge to the first Charles; but for ease, warmth and comfort thisseventeenth-century dress is infinitely superior to anything thatcame after it, and I do not think it is excelled by any precedingform of costume. I sincerely trust that we may soon see in Englandsome national revival of it.
  
[http://www2.essex.ac.uk/academic/calendar/academic-dress.html|academic-dress]
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==MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM==
  
[http://calendar.waikato.ac.nz/graduation.html#h2_1|Graduation Academic Dress]
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I have been much interested at reading the large amount of
  
[http://www.dispatch.co.za/1998/04/17/Easterncape/HISTORY.HTM|Academic Cap And Gown has 800 Year History]
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correspondence that has been called forth by my recent lecture onDress. It shows me that the subject of dress reform is one that isoccupying many wise and charming people, who have at heart theprinciples of health, freedom, and beauty in costume, and I hopethat "H. B. T." and "Materfamilias" will have all the realinfluence which their letters--excellent letters both of them--
  
[http://www.archive.org/details/degreesgownshood00wooduoft|Internet Archive: Free Download: The degrees, gowns and hoods of the British, Colonial, Indian and American universities and colleges]
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certainly deserve.
  
[http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/|Dr. J.C. Horton (Academic Dress)]
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I turn first to Mr. Huyshe's second letter, and the drawing that
  
[http://www.dmilne.com/Academic/html/7,8,9.htm|D. Milne Tailors]
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accompanies it; but before entering into any examination of the
  
[http://www.choirrobes.com/index.html|ER MOORE, graduation choir apparel gowns robes regalia]
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theory contained in each, I think I should state at once that I
  
[http://www.choirrobes.com/about/capandgowns.pdf|The Story of Caps and Gowns (PDF)]
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have absolutely no idea whether this gentleman wears his hair longor short, or his cuffs back or forward, or indeed what he is likeat all. I hope he consults his own comfort and wishes in
  
[http://www.choirrobes.com/about/commencement.pdf|Caps Gowns and Commencements (PDF)]
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everything which has to do with his dress, and is allowed to enjoythat individualism in apparel which he so eloquently claims forhimself, and so foolishly tries to deny to others; but I reallycould not take Mr. Wentworth Huyshe's personal appearance as anyintellectual basis for an investigation of the principles whichshould guide the costume of a nation. I am not denying the force,or even the popularity, of the "'Eave arf a brick" school ofcriticism, but I acknowledge it does not interest me. The gamin inthe gutter may be a necessity, but the gamin in discussion is anuisance. So I will proceed at once to the real point at issue,the value of the late eighteenth-century costume over that worn inthe second quarter of the seventeenth: the relative merits, thatis, of the principles contained in each. Now, as regards theeighteenth-century costume, Mr. Wentworth Huyshe acknowledges thathe has had no practical experience of it at all; in fact he makes apathetic appeal to his friends to corroborate him in his assertion,which I do not question for a moment, that he has never been"guilty of the eccentricity" of wearing himself the dress which heproposes for general adoption by others. There is something sonaive and so amusing about this last passage in Mr. Huyshe's letter
  
[http://www.choirrobes.com/about/commencementcode.pdf|A Code for Commencements (PDF)]
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that I am really in doubt whether I am not doing him a wrong in
  
[http://www.bizjournals.com/albany/stories/1996/09/23/smallb1.html|Greene County cottage industry masters academic hood market - 1996-09-23 - Capital District Business Review (Albany)]
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regarding him as having any serious, or sincere, views on the
  
[http://www.herff-jones.com/site_map_frameset.html|Herff Jones -- Site Map]
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question of a possible reform in dress; still, as irrespective of
  
[http://www.acenet.edu/faq/costume_code.html#Hoods|Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide]
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any attitude of Mr. Huyshe's in the matter, the subject is in
  
[http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/06.04/PumpsandCircums.html|Pumps and Circumstance: A Fashion Guide to Academic Garb]
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itself an interesting one, I think it is worth continuing,particularly as I have myself worn this late eighteenth-centurydress many times, both in public and in private, and so may claimto have a very positive right to speak on its comfort andsuitability. The particular form of the dress I wore was verysimilar to that given in Mr. Godwin's handbook, from a print of Northcote's, and had a certain elegance and grace about it whichwas very charming; still, I gave it up for these reasons:- After afurther consideration of the laws of dress I saw that a doublet isa far simpler and easier garment than a coat and waistcoat, and, ifbuttoned from the shoulder, far warmer also, and that tails have noplace in costume, except on some Darwinian theory of heredity; from
  
[http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/gown_rep.htm|Reporter References]
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absolute experience in the matter I found that the excessive
  
[http://members.aol.com/phildress/|University of London Academic Dress, Philip Goff.]
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tightness of knee-breeches is not really comfortable if one wearsthem constantly; and, in fact, I satisfied myself that the dress isnot one founded on any real principles. The broad-brimmed hat andloose cloak, which, as my object was not, of course, historicalaccuracy but modern ease, I had always worn with the costume inquestion, I have still retained, and find them most comfortable.
  
Airline Uniforms
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Well, although Mr. Huyshe has no real experience of the dress heproposes, he gives us a drawing of it, which he labels, somewhatprematurely, "An ideal dress." An ideal dress of course it is not;"passably picturesque," he says I may possibly think it; well,passably picturesque it may be, but not beautiful, certainly,simply because it is not founded on right principles, or, indeed,on any principles at all. Picturesqueness one may get in a varietyof ways; ugly things that are strange, or unfamiliar to us, forinstance, may be picturesque, such as a late sixteenth-centurycostume, or a Georgian house. Ruins, again, may be picturesque,but beautiful they never can be, because their lines aremeaningless. Beauty, in fact, is to be got only from theperfection of principles; and in "the ideal dress" of Mr. Huyshethere are no ideas or principles at all, much less the perfectionof either. Let us examine it, and see its faults; they are obviousto any one who desires more than a "Fancy-dress ball" basis forcostume. To begin with, the hat and boots are all wrong. Whateverone wears on the extremities, such as the feet and head, should,for the sake of comfort, be made of a soft material, and for thesake of freedom should take its shape from the way one chooses towear it, and not from any stiff, stereotyped design of hat or bootmaker. In a hat made on right principles one should be able toturn the brim up or down according as the day is dark or fair, dryor wet; but the hat brim of Mr. Huyshe's drawing is perfectlystiff, and does not give much protection to the face, or thepossibility of any at all to the back of the head or the ears, incase of a cold east wind; whereas the bycocket, a hat made inaccordance with the right laws, can be turned down behind and atthe sides, and so give the same warmth as a hood. The crown,again, of Mr. Huyshe's hat is far too high; a high crown diminishesthe stature of a small person, and in the case of any one who istall is a great inconvenience when one is getting in and out ofhansoms and railway carriages, or passing under a street awning:in no case is it of any value whatsoever, and being useless it isof course against the principles of dress.
  
[http://www.rhydin.org/uniform/airline/airline.htm|Airline Uniforms]
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As regards the boots, they are not quite so ugly or so
  
[http://www.uniformfreak.com/|Cliff Muskiet's Stewardess/Flight Attendant Uniform Collection]
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uncomfortable as the hat; still they are evidently made of stiff
  
[http://www.chelseamarketeers.com/BraniffHome.htm#Braniff|Braniff Uniform Collection Home Page]
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leather, as otherwise they would fall down to the ankle, whereas
  
[http://www.fabrics.net/joan502.asp|THE FLYING COSTUME OF HARRIET QUIMBY]
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the boot should be made of soft leather always, and if worn high atall must be either laced up the front or carried well over the
  
Band Uniforms & Color Guard
+
knee: in the latter case one combines perfect freedom for walkingtogether with perfect protection against rain, neither of whichadvantages a short stiff boot will ever give one, and when one isresting in the house the long soft boot can be turned down as theboot of 1640 was. Then there is the overcoat: now, what are theright principles of an overcoat? To begin with, it should becapable of being easily put on or off, and worn over any kind ofdress; consequently it should never have narrow sleeves, such asare shown in Mr. Huyshe's drawing. If an opening or slit for thearm is required it should be made quite wide, and may be protectedby a flap, as in that excellent overall the modern Inverness cape;secondly, it should not be too tight, as otherwise all freedom ofwalking is impeded. If the young gentleman in the drawing buttonshis overcoat he may succeed in being statuesque, though that Idoubt very strongly, but he will never succeed in being swift; his super-totus is made for him on no principle whatsoever; a super- totus, or overall, should be capable of being worn long or short,quite loose or moderately tight, just as the wearer wishes; heshould be able to have one arm free and one arm covered or botharms free or both arms covered, just as he chooses for hisconvenience in riding, walking, or driving; an overall again shouldnever be heavy, and should always be warm: lastly, it should becapable of being easily carried if one wants to take it off; infact, its principles are those of freedom and comfort, and a cloakrealizes them all, just as much as an overcoat of the patternsuggested by Mr. Huyshe violates them.
  
[[History100pages1938pettibone|Pettibone Manufacturing Co. Catalogue of Band Uniforms, 1938]]
+
The knee-breeches are of course far too tight; any one who has wornthem for any length of time--any one, in fact, whose views on thesubject are not purely theoretical--will agree with me there; likeeverything else in the dress, they are a great mistake. Thesubstitution of the jacket for the coat and waistcoat of the periodis a step in the right direction, which I am glad to see; it is,however, far too tight over the hips for any possible comfort.
  
[http://www.grandrepublic.org|Grand Republic]
+
Whenever a jacket or doublet comes below the waist it should beslit at each side. In the seventeenth century the skirt of the
  
[http://www.grandrepublic.org/gallery/index.php|Grand Republic Photo Gallery -Band Uniform History]
+
jacket was sometimes laced on by points and tags, so that it couldbe removed at will, sometimes it was merely left open at the sides:in each case it exemplified what are always the true principles ofdress, I mean freedom and adaptability to circumstances.
  
[http://www.dshowcase.com/|Welcome to Director's Showcase]
+
Finally, as regards drawings of this kind, I would point out that
  
[http://www.bandmans.com/|Band Uniforms Bandmans Color Guard Uniforms Drum Corps Uniforms]
+
there is absolutely no limit at all to the amount of "passably
  
[http://www.imhof.de/index.html|IMHOF UNIFORMEN GmbH ( Historical , Carnival and Band Uniforms, in German)]
+
picturesque" costumes which can be either revived or invented forus; but that unless a costume is founded on principles and
  
[http://www.customuniformcompany.com/MilitaryBandUniforms.html|Custom Uniform Company: Military & Band Uniforms]
+
exemplified laws, it never can be of any real value to us in the
  
[http://marchinglinks.com/|MarchingLinks.com -a free marching band and color guard resource site]
+
reform of dress. This particular drawing of Mr. Huyshe's, for
  
[http://www.fruhauf.com/|Fruhauf Uniforms, Inc. Band Unifoms]
+
instance, proves absolutely nothing, except that our grandfathersdid not understand the proper laws of dress. There is not a singlerule of right costume which is not violated in it, for it gives usstiffness, tightness and discomfort instead of comfort, freedom andease.
  
[http://www.stanbury.com/|Band Uniforms Drums Corps Uniforms Marching Band Uniforms Concert Performance Uniforms Otterwear Rainwear Uniform Pro]
+
Now here, on the other hand, is a dress which, being founded onprinciples, can serve us as an excellent guide and model; it hasbeen drawn for me, most kindly, by Mr. Godwin from the Duke ofNewcastle's delightful book on horsemanship, a book which is one ofour best authorities on our best era of costume. I do not ofcourse propose it necessarily for absolute imitation; that is notthe way in which one should regard it; it is not, I mean, a revivalof a dead costume, but a realization of living laws. I give it asan example of a particular application of principles which areuniversally right. This rationally dressed young man can turn hishat brim down if it rains, and his loose trousers and boots down ifhe is tired--that is, he can adapt his costume to circumstances;then he enjoys perfect freedom, the arms and legs are not madeawkward or uncomfortable by the excessive tightness of narrowsleeves and knee-breeches, and the hips are left quite untrammelled, always an important point; and as regards comfort,his jacket is not too loose for warmth, nor too close forrespiration; his neck is well protected without being strangled,and even his ostrich feathers, if any Philistine should object tothem, are not merely dandyism, but fan him very pleasantly, I amsure, in summer, and when the weather is bad they are no doubt leftat home, and his cloak taken out. THE VALUE OF THE DRESS IS SIMPLYTHAT EVERY SEPARATE ARTICLE OF IT EXPRESSES A LAW. My young man isconsequently apparelled with ideas, while Mr. Huyshe's young man isstiffened with facts; the latter teaches one nothing; from theformer one learns everything. I need hardly say that this dress isgood, not because it is seventeenth century, but because it isconstructed on the true principles of costume, just as a squarelintel or pointed arch is good, not because one may be Greek andthe other Gothic, but because each of them is the best method ofspanning a certain-sized opening, or resisting a certain weight.The fact, however, that this dress was generally worn in Englandtwo centuries and a half ago shows at least this, that the rightlaws of dress have been understood and realized in our country, andso in our country may be realized and understood again. As regardsthe absolute beauty of this dress and its meaning, I should like tosay a few words more. Mr. Wentworth Huyshe solemnly announces that"he and those who think with him" cannot permit this question ofbeauty to be imported into the question of dress; that he and thosewho think with him take "practical views on the subject," and soon. Well, I will not enter here into a discussion as to how farany one who does not take beauty and the value of beauty intoaccount can claim to be practical at all. The word practical isnearly always the last refuge of the uncivilized. Of all misusedwords it is the most evilly treated. But what I want to point outis that beauty is essentially organic; that is, it comes, not fromwithout, but from within, not from any added prettiness, but from the perfection of its own being; and that consequently, as the bodyis beautiful, so all apparel that rightly clothes it must bebeautiful also in its construction and in its lines.
  
[http://www.demoulin.com/|DeMoulin Bros. and Co. -- Band Uniforms]
+
I have no more desire to define ugliness than I have daring to
  
[http://www.stanbury.com/|Stanbury Uniforms : Band Uniforms, Drums Corps Uniforms, Marching Band Uniforms, Concert Performance Uniforms, Outerwear Rainwear, Uniform Protection]
+
define beauty; but still I would like to remind those who mock at
  
[http://www.algyteam.com/|Algy Team Spirit Collection 2004 Cheerleader & Majorette Uniforms]
+
beauty as being an unpractical thing of this fact, that an ugly
  
Business Dress
+
thing is merely a thing that is badly made, or a thing that does
  
[http://localgov.monster.co.uk/articles/authority/page4/|Monster.co.uk: Getting into local authority work - entry level (Interesting notes about dressing for job interviews for British government jobs)]
+
not serve it purpose; that ugliness is want of fitness; thatugliness is failure; that ugliness is uselessness, such as ornamentin the wrong place, while beauty, as some one finely said, is thepurgation of all superfluities. There is a divine economy aboutbeauty; it gives us just what is needful and no more, whereasugliness is always extravagant; ugliness is a spendthrift andwastes its material; in fine, ugliness--and I would commend thisremark to Mr. Wentworth Huyshe--ugliness, as much in costume as inanything else, is always the sign that somebody has beenunpractical. So the costume of the future in England, if it isfounded on the true laws of freedom, comfort, and adaptability tocircumstances, cannot fail to be most beautiful also, becausebeauty is the sign always of the rightness of principles, themystical seal that is set upon what is perfect, and upon what isperfect only.
  
[http://content.monster.com/wlb/articles/attheoffice/women/|Monster.com: The Business Casual Dress Code (Work/Life Balance feature)]
+
As for your other correspondent, the first principle of dress that
  
[http://www.fordham.edu/cpp/appearance.htm|Proper Interview Attire]
+
all garments should be hung from the shoulders and not from thewaist seems to me to be generally approved of, although an "OldSailor" declares that no sailors or athletes ever suspend theirclothes from the shoulders, but always from the hips. My ownrecollection of the river and running ground at Oxford--those twohomes of Hellenism in our little Gothic town--is that the bestrunners and rowers (and my own college turned out many) wore alwaysa tight jersey, with short drawers attached to it, the wholecostume being woven in one piece. As for sailors, it is true, Iadmit, and the bad custom seems to involve that constant "hitchingup" of the lower garments which, however popular in transpontinedramas, cannot, I think, but be considered an extremely awkwardhabit; and as all awkwardness comes from discomfort of some kind, Itrust that this point in our sailor's dress will be looked to inthe coming reform of our navy, for, in spite of all protests, Ihope we are about to reform everything, from torpedoes to top-hats,and from crinolettes to cruises.
  
[http://www.businesscasualdress.com/index.html|Business Casual Consulting on Dress Code Policy & Professional Attire]
+
Then as regards clogs, my suggestion of them seems to have arouseda great deal of terror. Fashion in her high-heeled boots hasscreamed, and the dreadful word "anachronism" has been used. Now,whatever is useful cannot be an anachronism. Such a word isapplicable only to the revival of some folly; and, besides, in theEngland of our own day clogs are still worn in many of ourmanufacturing towns, such as Oldham. I fear that in Oldham theymay not be dreams of beauty; in Oldham the art of inlaying themwith ivory and with pearl may possibly be unknown; yet in Oldhamthey serve their purpose. Nor is it so long since they were wornby the upper classes of this country generally. Only a few daysago I had the pleasure of talking to a lady who remembered withaffectionate regret the clogs of her girlhood; they were, accordingto her, not too high nor too heavy, and were provided, besides,with some kind of spring in the sole so as to make them the moresupple for the foot in walking. Personally, I object to alladditional height being given to a boot or shoe; it is reallyagainst the proper principles of dress, although, if any suchheight is to be given it should be by means of two props; not one;but what I should prefer to see is some adaptation of the dividedskirt or long and moderately loose knickerbockers. If, however,the divided skirt is to be of any positive value, it must give upall idea of "being identical in appearance with an ordinary skirt";it must diminish the moderate width of each of its divisions, andsacrifice its foolish frills and flounces; the moment it imitates adress it is lost; but let it visibly announce itself as what itactually is, and it will go far towards solving a real difficulty.I feel sure that there will be found many graceful and charminggirls ready to adopt a costume founded on these principles, inspite of Mr. Wentworth Huyshe's terrible threat that he will notpropose to them as long as they wear it, for all charges of a wantof womanly character in these forms of dress are reallymeaningless; every right article of apparel belongs equally to bothsexes, and there is absolutely no such thing as a definitelyfeminine garment. One word of warning I should like to be allowedto give: The over-tunic should be made full and moderately loose;it may, if desired, be shaped more or less to the figure, but in nocase should it be confined at the waist by any straight band orbelt; on the contrary, it should fall from the shoulder to theknee, or below it, in fine curves and vertical lines, giving morefreedom and consequently more grace. Few garments are soabsolutely unbecoming as a belted tunic that reaches to the knees,a fact which I wish some of our Rosalinds would consider when they
  
[http://www.uwm.edu/~ceil/career/jobs/females.htm|Dress for Success]
+
don doublet and hose; indeed, to the disregard of this artistic
  
[http://www.10socks.com/|10socks] Socks made simple, for the sock-matching impaired
+
principle is due the ugliness, the want of proportion, in theBloomer costume, a costume which in other respects is sensible.
  
[http://www.quintcareers.com/dress_for_success_books.html|Quintessential Careers: Dress for Success Books]
+
==COSTUME==
  
[http://www.businesscasualdress.com/index.html|Business Casual Consulting on Dress Code Policy & Professional Attire]
+
Are we not all weary of him, that venerable impostor fresh from thesteps of the Piazza di Spagna, who, in the leisure moments that hecan spare from his customary organ, makes the round of the studiosand is waited for in Holland Park? Do we not all recognize him,when, with the gay insouciance of his nation, he reappears on thewalls of our summer exhibitions as everything that he is not, andas nothing that he is, glaring at us here as a patriarch of Canaan,here beaming as a brigand from the Abruzzi? Popular is he, thispoor peripatetic professor of posing, with those whose joy it is topaint the posthumous portrait of the last philanthropist who in hislifetime had neglected to be photographed,--yet he is the sign ofthe decadence, the symbol of decay.
  
[http://www.black-collegian.com/career/dress2002-1st.shtml|Dress For Success]
+
For all costumes are caricatures. The basis of Art is not the
  
[http://www.menswear-discounts.com/|menswear featuring suits slacks sport coats and tuxedos at low prices]
+
Fancy Ball. Where there is loveliness of dress, there is no
  
[http://www.dressforsuccess.org/|Dress for Success (Clothing charity to help low income women with job interview clothing)]
+
dressing up. And so, were our national attire delightful in
  
[http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7167|Dress for Success -- Does Primping Pay?]
+
colour, and in construction simple and sincere; were dress the
  
[http://www.selfesteem.org/labelle/curriculum/dress.htm|La Belle: How To Dress For Success]
+
expression of the loveliness that it shields and of the swiftness
  
[http://www.journeywoman.com/ccc/ccc-p.html|Journeywoman - What Should I Wear?] (Travel advice on acceptable clothing for locations all around the world)
+
and motion that it does not impede; did its lines break from the
  
[http://www.turotailor.com/guide.html|Turo Tailor - Dressing guide]
+
shoulder instead of bulging from the waist; did the inverted
  
Carnival & Mardi Gras
+
wineglass cease to be the ideal of form; were these things broughtabout, as brought about they will be, then would painting be nolonger an artificial reaction against the ugliness of life, butbecome, as it should be, the natural expression of life's beauty.Nor would painting merely, but all the other arts also, be thegainers by a change such as that which I propose; the gainers, Imean, through the increased atmosphere of Beauty by which theartists would be surrounded and in which they would grow up. ForArt is not to be taught in Academies. It is what one looks at, notwhat one listens to, that makes the artist. The real schools should be the streets. There is not, for instance, a singledelicate line, or delightful proportion, in the dress of theGreeks, which is not echoed exquisitely in their architecture. Anation arrayed in stove-pipe hats and dress-improvers might havebuilt the Pantechnichon possibly, but the Parthenon never. Andfinally, there is this to be said: Art, it is true, can never haveany other claim but her own perfection, and it may be that theartist, desiring merely to contemplate and to create, is wise innot busying himself about change in others: yet wisdom is notalways the best; there are times when she sinks to the level ofcommon-sense; and from the passionate folly of those--and there aremany--who desire that Beauty shall be confined no longer to the bric-a-brac of the collector and the dust of the museum, but shallbe, as it should be, the natural and national inheritance of all,--from this noble unwisdom, I say, who knows what new lovelinessshall be given to life, and, under these more exquisite conditions,what perfect artist born? Le milieu se renouvelant, l'art se renouvelle.
 
+
[http://www.listinus.de?sID=972686860&module=topsites&topID=473&screen=topsitesSHOW&intern=TRUE/|Top 50 Karneval - Listinus (Top 50 Carnival sites in German)]
+
 
+
[http://www.mardigrascostumepics.com/katrina_costumes.shtml|Katrina Costumes, Mardi Gras costume Ideas and pictures]
+
 
+
[http://community.webshots.com/album/1236908|Webshots Community - Wild Images : Venice Carnival (Hi-res)]
+
 
+
[http://www.benefisshop.com/|Benefis Costume Studio of Moldova, Specializing in Ballet, Carnival and Pageant Costumes.]
+
 
+
[http://www.mardigrascostumepics.com/|Mardi Gras Costume Ideas, Photos, Pictures, and FAAAAAAAAT Tuesday Fun! New Orleans Mardi Gras, Costume Photos]
+
 
+
[http://www.yoyita.com/saint_patrick_characters.htm|Saint Patrick Day Parade, Jackson Mississippi, people in costumes]
+
 
+
[http://www.ohvenice.com/|Venice Carnevale]
+
 
+
[http://www.kbs-koeln.de/kgs-langemass/karneval/kgska13.htm|Funkenmariechen costumes for carnival]
+
 
+
[http://www.serve.com/shea/germusa/kolner.htm|KARNEVAL-CARNIVAL-FASCHING]
+
 
+
[http://italianfood.about.com/library/weekly/aa123096.htm|Carnevale -- Let the Fun Begin!]
+
 
+
[http://community.webshots.com/album/911815|Webshots Community - Venice Carnival 2000]
+
 
+
[http://community.webshots.com/album/952740|Webshots Community - swabian-alemannian carnival]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Festivals (20th Century Development in Fashion and Costume Series)]]
+
 
+
[http://www.doge.it/calend/calendi.htm|Doge di Venezia : Il Carnevale]
+
 
+
[http://www.guestinvenice.com/carnivalofvenice/|Carnevale di Venezia 2001 - Calendario Ufficiale degli Eventi]
+
 
+
[http://www.stern-matthies.de/|STERN Bremen, Karneval-und Theaterschminke, Bärte, Wimpern]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Mardi Gras Treasures: Costume Designs of the Golden Age]]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Absolutely Mardi Gras: Costume and Design of the Sydney Gay & Lesbian Mardi Gras]]
+
 
+
[http://www.visittnt.com/Carnival1999/index.html|Trinidad & Tobago Carnival 1999]
+
 
+
[http://www.neckelmanns.com/|Neckelman's Beaded Costumes - belly dance, mardi gras, ]
+
 
+
[http://old.smh.com.au/news/specials/local/mardigras/2002/0203/02/news1.html|The party of protest - Mardi Gras 2002]
+
 
+
[http://www.belizeit.com/puntarama/|Puntarama Pruductions: CARNIVAL '97]
+
 
+
[http://www.caribscape.com/carnivalqueen/prizes.html|Carnival Queen Show 1998 Prizes]
+
 
+
[http://www.travelgrenada.com/carnival.htm|Grenada carnival]
+
 
+
[http://www.imhof.de/index.html|IMHOF UNIFORMEN GmbH ( Historical , Carnival and Band Uniforms, in German)]
+
 
+
See Also,'''
+
 
+
[[Store100pagesHalloween|Halloween]]'''
+
 
+
Clowns
+
 
+
[http://www.clown-ministry.com/Articles/clowning-tutorial/Clowning-costuming.html|Clown Ministry - How do I start clowning - clown costume]
+
 
+
[http://www.mooseburger.com/pdfs/Cat_P7.pdf|Readymade High-end Clown costumes]
+
 
+
[http://www.ags.uci.edu/~dcoble/clowns/clowns.html|Dan's New Gallery of Scary Clowns]
+
 
+
Cooks and other Food Service Workers
+
 
+
[http://www.chefwear.com/home.asp|Chefwear - Chef Uniform, Chef Jacket, Chef Clothes, Chef Pants, Restaurant Clothes, Chef Uniforms, Restaurant Uniforms, and Coo]
+
 
+
[http://www.thechefhat.com/|Chef Uniforms and Hats, Chef Pants and Coats - The Chef Hat Chef Clothing and Chef Wear]
+
 
+
[http://www.crookedbrook.com/|Crooked Brook - Chef Jackets, Chef Coats, Chef Uniforms, Restaurant & Hotel Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.crookedbrook.com/|Chef Jackets, Chef Coats, Chef Uniforms, Restaurant & Hotel Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.culinaryclassics.com/|Chef Uniform by Culinary Classics]
+
 
+
[http://dmoz.org/Shopping/Clothing/Uniforms/Food_Service/|Open Directory - Shopping: Clothing: Uniforms: Food Service]
+
 
+
==Court Dress==
+
 
+
[[GalleryimagesDresswornatcourtDressatcourt|Court DressDress Worn at Court, London, 1912]] (Regulations for uniforms for military, government officials, and civilian ladies and gentlemen appearing at the English Court).
+
 
+
[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Courtdress|Yahoo! Groups : Courtdress]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/royal_clothes.htm|Royal Clothes and Ceremonial Gowns of Queen Elizabeth II and Queen Mother]
+
 
+
[http://www.filibustercartoons.com/pictessays_leaders_monarch.php|Monarchs in Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.fotomarburg.de/gaeste/szelenyi/index.html|Karoly Szelenyi - Die Heilige Krone von Ungarn (11th century Hungarian Coronation Regalia)]
+
 
+
[http://www.mfa.gov.yu/History/du_e.html|DIPLOMATIC-CONSULAR SUITS OF THE KINGDOMS OF SERBIA AND YUGOSLAVIA]
+
 
+
[http://www.fotomarburg.de/gaeste/szelenyi/krone01.html|Karoly Szelenyi - Die Heilige Krone von Ungarn]
+
 
+
[http://www.georgianindex.net/coronation/Coronation-GeorgeIV.html|Coronation of George IV]
+
 
+
[http://www.georgianindex.net/Napoleon/coronation/coronation.html|Napoleon's Coronation as Emperor of the French]
+
 
+
[http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/ctCostume.html|Imperial Court Costume - Alexander Palace Time Machine]
+
 
+
[http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/char/char.html|Princess Charlotte's Wedding Page]
+
 
+
[http://www.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/c_dress.htm|Court Dress and Civil Uniform]
+
 
+
[[Galleryimages1809ranksbylambIndex|The Book of the Ranks and Dignities of British Society, 1809 ]]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Dressed to Rule : Royal and Court Costume from Louis XIV to Elizabeth II]]
+
 
+
[[Galleryimages1911playerscoronationIndex|1911 Player's Cigarette cards of Ceremonial and Court Dress]]
+
 
+
[http://www.phxart.org/pastexhibitions/GF_gown.asp|Phoenix Art Museum - Gold Fever C. 1760 Court Gown]
+
 
+
[http://medieval.webcon.net.au/extant_insignia_holy_roman.html|Insignia of the Holy Roman Empire]
+
 
+
[http://www.vor.ru/culture/cultarch71_eng.html|Russian culture navigator (scroll down for exhibit "An exhibition of the Russian court costume") ]
+
 
+
[http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/subjects/4843|Gathering the Jewels:: The Domestic Sphere :: Dress and personal accessories :: Ceremonial costumes]
+
 
+
[http://www.nlr.ru:8101/eng/exib/moda/|15-18th Century Female French Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/item1/28916|Court mantua and petticoat, 1720s :: Gathering the Jewels]
+
 
+
[http://www.amazon.com/Royal-Dress-Image-Reality-Present/dp/084191267X/thecostumersmani| Royal Dress The Image and the Reality 1580 to the Present Day Books Valerie Cumming]
+
 
+
[http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/item1/5780|Robes worn by Lady Llangattock at the 1902 coronation ceremony of King George V ::]
+
 
+
[http://www.hrp.org.uk/webcode/content.asp?ID=405|Historic Royal Palaces: Royal Ceremonial Dress Collection, Kensington Palace]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| DVD: Royalty & Fashion]]
+
 
+
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/6302287367/thecostumersmani|DVD: Royalty & Fashion]
+
 
+
[http://www.royalandnoble.com/History/Mythology&Symbolism/crowns.html|Royal and Noble - History - Symbolism - Crowns]
+
 
+
[http://www.wired-gov.net/WGLaunch.asp?ARTCL=17377|50 FACTS ABOUT THE QUEEN'S CORONATION]
+
 
+
[http://www.alexanderpalace.org/jewels/costumes.html|Jewels of the Romanovs: Romanov Jewels - Costumes and Portraits]
+
 
+
[http://www.alexanderpalace.org/jewels/afdress1.html|Jewels of the Romanovs Costumes and Portraits - Alexandra Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.alexanderpalace.org/jewels/paul.html|Jewels of the Romanovs Costumes and Portraits - Full Dress Uniform of Paul I]
+
 
+
[http://www.angelfire.com/movies/costumes/queens.html|Dress of the Queens of Sweden]
+
 
+
[http://www.northwilts.gov.uk/lt_museums_galleries-gentleman_s_court_suit|Gentleman's court suit (plain black)]
+
 
+
[http://www.vintageconnection.net/|The Vintage Connection]
+
 
+
[http://www.vintageconnection.net/archives/QueenElizabeth.htm|Queen Elizabeth's Coronation Gowns]
+
 
+
[http://www.vintageconnection.net/archives/AndTheBrideWore.htm|Royal Wedding Gowns]
+
 
+
[http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_Art/viewOnezoom.asp?dep=8&zoomFlag=0&viewmode=0&item=32%2E35%2E12a%96c|The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Works of Art: The Costume Institute Court Suit, third quarter 18th Century]
+
 
+
[http://www.abcgallery.com/G/gainsborough/gainsborough59.html|Thomas Gainsborough. Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland. - Ducal Regalia]
+
 
+
[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2b-Cfe7fPok&feature=related|YouTube - Tsar Nicholas II Coronation]
+
 
+
[http://www.metmuseum.org/special/Extreme_Beauty/11.r.htm|The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Court dress, ca. 1750]
+
 
+
[http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/eudr/hob_C.I.65.13.1a-c_av3.htm|Met Object Page | Court dress [British]: alternate view]
+
 
+
[http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/eudr/ho_C.I.65.13.1a-c.htm|Met Object Page | Court dress [British]]
+
 
+
[http://www.ltgov.bc.ca/whatsnew/mr/mr_sep21_2002.htm|Death of The Honourable Henry Bell-Irving (Image of Court Dress Suit)]
+
 
+
[http://princessdiana.ca/|Princess Diana's Klondike Dress Worn in Canada on Royal Tour]
+
 
+
[http://www.hand-embroidery.co.uk/frame.htm|Welcome to the Hand & Lock Website. Supplying Gold lace and embroidery since 1767 for military, court and theatrical use.]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t]]
+
 
+
Regalia
+
 
+
[http://affiliates.allposters.com/link/redirect.asp?aid=280808&c=a&search=Sherwin%2C+W%2E|W. Sherwin]
+
 
+
[http://affiliates.allposters.com/link/redirect.asp?aid=280808&item=146982|Buy This Art Print At AllPosters.com]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t]]
+
 
+
Regalia
+
 
+
[http://affiliates.allposters.com/link/redirect.asp?aid=280808&c=a&search=Sherwin%2C+W%2E|W. Sherwin]
+
 
+
[http://affiliates.allposters.com/link/redirect.asp?aid=280808&item=146981|Buy This Art Print At AllPosters.com]
+
 
+
[http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~ulrich/19cdress/00s-20s/1800satincourtdressMariaFeo.htm|1800 Satin court dress of Empress Maria Feodorovna]
+
 
+
[http://www.khm.at/system2E.html?/staticE/page538.html|Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, Black Court Dress of the Empress Elisabeth of Austria]
+
 
+
[http://www.pavlovskart.spb.ru/english/palace/collections/index.shtml?cost1|Collections. Palace. Pavlovsk]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/dress%20at%20court1.html|Image from Dress Worn at Court, Herbert AP Trendell, London, 1912]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/dress%20at%20court2.html|Image from Dress Worn at Court, Herbert AP Trendell, London, 1912]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/thumbscourt.html|Court Dress Images by Lafayette]
+
 
+
[http://www.bestofrussia.ca/style3.html|Best of Russia --- Imperial Style (Court Dress)]
+
 
+
[http://www.bestofrussia.ca/regalia.html|Best of Russia --- Royal Regalia]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Kids Frog/Prince convertible Hat]]
+
 
+
[http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~cczjch/c_dress.htm|Court Dress and Civil Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.khm.at/|Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien]
+
 
+
[http://www.khm.at/system2E.html?/staticE/page2157.html|Court Uniforms Pt. 1]
+
 
+
[http://www.khm.at/system2E.html?/staticE/page2158.html|Court Uniforms Pt. 2]
+
 
+
[http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/mmbt/www/women/omori/court/court.html|Diaries of Court Ladies of Old Japan.]
+
 
+
[http://heraldry.freeservers.com/heralds.html|Spanish Herald Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page3564.asp|Sketch showing typical court dress]
+
 
+
[http://elmbridgemuseum.org.uk/?Document=200.020.030&Image=288&gst=|Elmbridge Museum: 1780's Court Suit]
+
 
+
[http://elmbridgemuseum.org.uk/?document=200.020.030&image=453053861|Elmbridge Museum 1780's court suit detail]
+
 
+
[http://www.henrypoole.com/news.html|Henry Poole Court Dress (for men, now)]
+
 
+
[http://www.koshka-the-cat.com/court_dress.html|Russian Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.koshka-the-cat.com/russian.html|Russian Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/dress/court.html|Court Dresses]
+
 
+
[http://ia350621.us.archive.org/0/items/dresswornathisma00trenuoft/dresswornathisma00trenuoft.pdf|Dress Worn at Court 1912 PDF]
+
 
+
[http://www.archive.org/details/dressinsigniawor00greauoft|Internet Archive: Details: Dress and insignia worn at His Majesty's court, issued with the authority of the lord chamberlain 1921]
+
 
+
[http://www.archive.org/details/dresswornathisma00trenuoft|Internet Archive: Details: Dress worn at His Majesty's court : issued with the authority of the Lord Chamberlain 1912]
+
 
+
[http://www.likesbooks.com/court.html|All About Romance: Presentation at Court]
+
 
+
[http://www.khm.at/system2E.html?/staticE/page334.html|Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna: 1780 Man's Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/mainpage.html|Alexander Palace - Main Palace Menu - Welcome]
+
 
+
[http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/ctCostume.html|Alexander Palace - Women's Court Costume and Positions in Imperial Russia]
+
 
+
[http://www.abc.net.au/concon/games/bdhead.htm|Best Dressed Head of State Paperdoll]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/dressalix.html|Court Dress of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna - Nicholas & Alexandra Exhibit Items]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/virtual1999/corodress.html|NICHOLAS and ALEXANDRA - Gallery V - Coronation Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/virtual1999/senator.html|NICHOLAS and ALEXANDRA - Gallery VII- Two Ceremonial Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/virtual1999/tunic.html|NICHOLAS and ALEXANDRA - Gallery IV - Nicholas' Life Guards Tunic]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/dresso&t.html|Court Dresses of Olga & Tatiana - Nicholas & Alexandra Exhibit Items]
+
 
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_uniform_and_dress|Court uniform and dress - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
+
 
+
[http://pirate.shu.edu/~wisterro/cdi/coronets_and_hierarchy.htm|CORONETS AND HIERARCHY]
+
 
+
[http://www.euronet.nl/~icu08601/intro.htm|Collectie Lohnstein Dutch Civil, Colonial Police and Military Uniform and Dress]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Napoleon and Josephine Paper Dolls]]
+
 
+
[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/beautifulroyals/|Yahoo! Groups : beautifulroyals Pictures and notices about young Queen Elizabeth,Princess Margaret ,their fashion and jewellery from 1947 to 1960.]
+
 
+
[http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/pages/page_id19235_u1l2.htm|nc - Chaussure Paire de souliers de l'impératrice Joséphine ]
+
 
+
[http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/pages/page_id19238_u1l2.htm|nc - Echarpe de l'Impératrice Joséphine ]
+
 
+
[http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/pages/page_id19237_u1l2.htm|nc - Gilet du marquis de Beauharnais (vest)]
+
 
+
[http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/pages/page_id19236_u1l2.htm|nc - Robe de cour et traîne Worn by Empress Josephene]
+
 
+
[http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/pages/page_id19233_u1l2.htm|nc - Salle des atours]
+
 
+
[http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/pages/page_id19234_u1l2.htm|nc -Habit du Premier Consul ]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Splendeur Des Uniformes De Napoleon: Costumes Du Sacre-armes Drapeaux Et Decorations]]
+
 
+
[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1818marieantoinette.html|Wardrobe practices of Marie Antoinette's Court from Madame Campan: Memoirs of the Private Life of Marie Antoinette, 1818]
+
 
+
[http://search.famsf.org/4d.acgi$Record?40753&=list&=51&=costume%20france&=And&=60&=0&=keywords&=Yes&=&=&=&=Yes&=&=f|FAMSF: Woman's Court Costume of 1788]
+
 
+
[http://search.famsf.org/4d.acgi$Record?202204&=list&=1&=costume%20england&=And&=2&=0&=keywords&=Yes&=&=&=&=Yes&=&=f|FAMSF: Gentleman's Court Suit 1780-1785]
+
 
+
[http://search.famsf.org/4d.acgi$Record?40743&=list&=51&=Camus&=And&=59&=0&=keywords&=Yes&=&=&=&=Yes&=&=f|FAMSF: Gentleman in Court Dress 1788]
+
 
+
[http://www.archive.org/details/sacreetcouronnem00pich|Coronation of Louis XVI in 1775: Internet Archive: Free Download: Sacre et couronnement de Louis XVI roi de France et de Navarre à Rheims, le 11 juin 1775 : précédé de Recherches sur le sacre des rois de France, depuis Clovis jusqu'a Louis XV : et suivi d'un Journal historique de ce qui s'est passé a cette auguste cérémonie : enrichi d'un très-grand nombre de figures en taille-douce, gravées par le sieur Patas, avec leurs explications]Edited by T.J. Pichon, author of section entitled Journal historique. Contributions by Nicolas Gobet
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Louis XIV and His Court Paper Dolls]]
+
 
+
[http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_6_4e.html|The State Hermitage Museum: Uniform Dress of Catherine II 1763]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/index.htm|Carl Lemke Unique Jewelry: Heraldic Reproduction Jewelry]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Jewelry/Renaissance_Jewelry/Orders_and_badges/Fleece/fleece.htm|Order of the Golden Fleece Collar Replica]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Coronet/Coronet_how_to_make/coronet_how_to_make.htm|Coronet how to make]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Jewelry/Renaissance_Jewelry/Renaissance_Collar/Info_Page/Making_wax_seals/making_wax_seals.htm|Making wax seals]
+
 
+
[http://heraldry.freeservers.com/heralds.html|Spanish Herald Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/intro.html|Introductory Items to the Lafayette Collection 1897-1930]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/thumbsroyalty.html|Thumbnails of images of royalty in the Lafayette Archive at the V&A]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/thumbscourt.html|Court Dress Images by Lafayette]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/ethiopia.html|Ethiopians]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/asia.html|Lafayette - portraits of sitters from Japan, China, Malaysia, Thailand]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/indindex.html|Indian sitters in the Lafayette Archive at the V&A]
+
 
+
[http://lafayette.150m.com/dhblist.html|Devonshire House Ball]
+
 
+
[http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_6_2f.html|The State Hermitage Museum: Ceremonial Attire of Peter I 1710-1720]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/senator.html|NICHOLAS and ALEXANDRA - Gallery VII- Two Ceremonial Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/chamberlain.html|NICHOLAS and ALEXANDRA - Gallery VII- Gala Chamberlain's Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/corodress.html|NICHOLAS and ALEXANDRA - Gallery V - Coronation Court Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1855moltke-alexander2.html|Modern History Sourcebook: Count von Moltke: The Coronation of Tsar Alexander II, 1855]
+
 
+
[http://www.phxart.org/collection/mcoat.asp|Phoenix Art Museum - Man's Late 18th Century Court Dress Coat]
+
 
+
[http://collectionsonline.lacma.org/mwebcgi/mweb.exe?request=exhibit&id=6635|LACMA Collections Online Fashion at the Court of Louis XIV]
+
 
+
[http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/1333_styleandsplendour/|V&A - Style & Splendour - Queen Maude of Norway's Wardrobe 1896-1938]
+
 
+
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/084191267X/thecostumersmani|Royal Dress : The Image and the Reality 1580 to the Present Day]
+
 
+
[http://www.angelfire.com/ny/ethiocrown/|IMPERIAL ETHIOPIA HOME PAGE]
+
 
+
[http://www.angelfire.com/ak/sellassie/|Haile Sellassie Family Web]
+
 
+
[http://www.angelfire.com/ny/ethiocrown/Haile.html|Emperor Haile Selassie I, Part 1]
+
 
+
Courtesans
+
 
+
[http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/03/arts/design/03FEMM.html?ex=1042614461&ei=1&en=0df08477c1b2029a|Courtesans' Costumes Redeemed as Couture]
+
 
+
[http://www.armory.com/~skuld/venice.html#prost|Clothing in Early Modern Venice: Courtesans]
+
 
+
[http://www.usc.edu/ext-relations/news_service/chronicle_html/1995.03.27.html/06.DRESSED.html|Dressed (or undressed) for success: Venetian Courtesans]
+
 
+
[http://virtual.park.uga.edu/cdesmet/jason/court.htm|Courtesans in Venice: Clothing]
+
 
+
Cowboys
+
 
+
See
+
 
+
[[Ethnic1pagesEthnolnk#North America|Traditional Dress/"Ethnic" Clothing, North America]]
+
 
+
Domestic Servants, see
+
 
+
[[ManifestoHistory#Servants, Household|Servants, Household]]
+
 
+
Firemen, see
+
 
+
[[ManifestoHistory#Police|Police & Fire Uniforms]]
+
 
+
Formalwear
+
 
+
[http://www.tuxedo-formalwear.com/cummerbund.html|Radical Expressions, Improving the "Expressions" of Men's Formalwear and Tuxedos]
+
 
+
[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/inaug/fashion/dress.htm|WashingtonPost.com: State of the Union? A Dress] (USA First Lady Inaugural Ball Gowns)
+
 
+
[http://www.ebaystores.com/id=4194655|Glotux eBay Store] (Formalwear)
+
 
+
[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/FormalWear|Yahoo! Groups : FormalWear]
+
 
+
[http://www.formalwear.org/public/resources/tophat.html|History of the Top Hat]
+
 
+
[http://www.tuxedowholesaler.com/home.html|Tuxedo Wholesaler]
+
 
+
[http://ozykids.com/index.php/cPath/78?osCsid=2cad3435829c7c307843ed41c82c6529|Formal Kids- Formal wear for kids - Flower Girl Dresses Children's Wedding Attire Christening Wear and Accessories]
+
 
+
[http://www.mallabar.com/|Costumes, Legal Wear, Tuxedo, Formal Wear, Stage Draperies, Theatre Wear, Legal, Dancewear, Mas]
+
 
+
[http://www.ishop.co.uk/ishop/820/shopscr4.html|The Mess Dress men's dress furnishings]
+
 
+
[http://www.hackett.co.uk/brochure.htm|HACKETT - British menswear]
+
 
+
[http://www.hackett.co.uk/brochure/formal/page07.html|HACKETT - collars]
+
 
+
[http://www.shepherdandwoodward.co.uk/acatalog/index.htm|Shepherd & Woodward Ltd]
+
 
+
[http://www.shepherdandwoodward.co.uk/Suithire/|Shepherd & Woodward/Formal & Dresswear Hire Department]
+
 
+
[http://www.anyiams.com/main.htm|Anyiam's Creations: Exquisite collection of Bridal Wear, Formal Wear, Afrocentric Fashions, Robes, Cap & Gown, Tuxedos, Evening Wear, Men's & Ladies Wear, Fashion Design, Online Shop]
+
 
+
[http://www.uniformalwearhouse.com/index.html|Tuxedos, formalwear and uniforms at discount prices by Uniformalwearhouse]
+
 
+
[http://www.uniformalwearhouse.com/apages/tuxedojackets3.html|Full dress tail coats are available in black, white and ivory with prices starting at $99.95. Tuxedo tails, tail jackets.]
+
 
+
[http://www.uniformalwearhouse.com/apages/tuxedojackets_trad.html|Traditional morning attire. Cutaways jackets, stroller jackets, ascots, vests and and other traditional accessories.]
+
 
+
[http://www.menswear-discounts.com/|menswear featuring suits slacks sport coats and tuxedos at low prices]
+
 
+
[http://www.uglydress.com/index.html|Ugly Dress.com - Bridesmaid Dresses From Hell]
+
 
+
[http://www.keezers.com/|Keezers Classic Clothing - Tuxedos in Massachusetts]
+
 
+
Three volumes of from 1893-1898 of
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893to1898cuttersguide|The Cutter's Practical Guide ]] by W. D. F. Vincent, including:
+
 
+
[[History100pages1898cuttersguide1a|Part 1]] 1898 edition, Young Men's, Youths' and Juvenile Garments, Embracing also Treatise on Trousers, Vests, Military Garments, Liveries, etc., etc., etc.
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893cutters2a|Part 2]] 1893 edition, Body Coats of every description, embracing Morning, Frock and Dress Coats, Livery, Clerical, Naval, Military, Police and other Special Garments
+
 
+
[[History100pages1898cuttersguide9a|Part 9]]1898 edition, Jacket Cutting and Making, Embracing Lounges, Reefers & Patrol Jackets, in all their Varieties, Also Including the Cutting and Making of Robes and Gowns
+
 
+
[http://www.angelfire.com/ego/flyingmachine/ritz.html|Puttin' on the Ritz - lyrics ]from 1940s version of song
+
 
+
[http://www.tuxedosonline.com/|tuxedos, tuxedo vests, cuff links and studs, tux shirts and formal wear.]
+
 
+
[http://www.minskytux.com/wedding/guide.htm|Formalwear Guide]
+
 
+
Fraternal Orders & Knighthood
+
 
+
[http://www.mainehistory.com/rum-riot-reform/1820-1865/exhibits/rrr-88.html|Rum, Riot, and Reform Dress & Bowdoinham Sons of Temperance Regalia]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Jewelry/Renaissance_Jewelry/Garter_Star/garter_star.htm|Order of the Garter Star]
+
 
+
[http://www.heraldicsculptor.com/Garters.html|Order of the Garter]
+
 
+
[[File:WomenFashionplates1882pensionersredcoats.jpg]] Pensioner Uniforms in 1882, stuck in an 18th Century time warp.
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Jewelry/Renaissance_Jewelry/Garter_King_Badge/garter_king_badge.htm|Garter King Badge]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Jewelry/Renaissance_Jewelry/garter_collar/garter_collar.html|Garter Collar]
+
 
+
[http://www.scottish-rite-mn.org/degrees.htm|Degrees of the Scottish Rite]
+
 
+
[http://www.ralphsingerjewelry.com/|Fashion Jewelry by Ralph Singer - And Fraternal Jewelry]
+
 
+
[http://vwwmall.com/Merchant2/merchant.mv?Screen=CTGY&Store_Code=RSF&Category_Code=T|Ralph Singer Fraternal Jewelry: Crowns]
+
 
+
[http://www.customuniformcompany.com/ShrineUniforms.html|Custom Uniform Company: Shrine Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.signetring.com/Jewelry/Renaissance_Jewelry/Collar_of_SS/collar_of_ss.htm|collar of SS]
+
 
+
[http://www.ioof-rebekah.com/|Welcome to Kalamazoo Regalia Online I.O.O.F. Costumes, flags, markers]
+
 
+
[http://www.themaac.com/regalia.html|TheMAAC Regalia]
+
 
+
[http://www.newlondonregalia.com/|New London Regalia Manufacturing Company, Inc.]
+
 
+
[http://www.lightboston.co.uk/|Light & Boston Ltd. - Masonic Regalia & Insignia Catalogue]
+
 
+
[[GalleryimagesRomansecretfraternitiesIndex|Roman Secret Religious Fraternity Costumes of the 19th Century in hand-colored plates]]
+
 
+
[http://www.lafsco.com/mmregalia.html|Master Mason Regalia: Los Angeles Fraternal Supply Company, Inc. (LAFSCO)]
+
 
+
[http://www.thefreemason.com/acatalog/|www.thefreemason.com Masonic Shopping]
+
 
+
[http://swanslaexpressions.com/|Swans L.A. Expressions: African American clothing, sorority and fraternity gear.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/history.htm#PICTURES|History of the Order of St. John: Pictures of Uniforms of the Knights of Malta]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic07.htm|Dress of the Knights of Malta 18th Century.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/cross.htm|History of the Maltese Cross.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic01.htm|French Knight of Order of Malta 1678.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/templars/orders.htm|Knights Templars - Costume]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic03.htm|Knight Hospitaller 1248-59.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic02.htm|Knight of Order of Malta & page to Louis XIV.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic06.htm|A Professed Knight 1798.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic05.htm|Costumes 17th Century Knights of Malta]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic04.htm|Costumes 18th Century Knights of Malta]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic09.htm|Figures of the Order of Malta 18th Century.]
+
 
+
[http://www2.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic08.htm|Knight Antoine de Favray 18th Century.]
+
 
+
[http://www.homeusers.prestel.co.uk/church/oosj/sjpic07.htm|Dress of the Knights of Malta 18th Century.]
+
 
+
[http://welcome.to/ODMWEBRING|Orders, Decorations & Medals Webring]
+
 
+
Gangs, Punks, and other Youth groups ("Goth" may be found at
+
 
+
[[History100pagesGothvampire|Gothic & Vampire Clothing Page]]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Gangs And Their Tattoos : Identifying Gangbangers On The Street And In Prison]]
+
 
+
[http://www.twafa.org.uk/Fascism/Skinheads.html|Skinheads]
+
 
+
[http://www.rawvision.com/rawvision/current/criminalskins/criminalskins.html|Raw Vision: Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopedia]
+
 
+
[http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A427213|BBC - h2g2 - Skinheads - A427213]
+
 
+
[http://www.metronet.co.uk/marl/index.htm|TEDDYBOYS The First Teenage]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Dr. Martens '8417' Boot]]
+
 
+
Halloween
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
[[Store100pagesHalloween|Halloween Costume Page]]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Dressed for Thrills: One Hundred Years of Halloween Costume and Masquerade]]
+
 
+
[http://www.timesunion.com/AspStories/story.asp?storyID=69768|'Racially offensive costume stirs campus furor' - timesunion.com]
+
 
+
Legal Dress
+
 
+
[http://www.mallabar.com/legal.html|Mallabar Apparel - Canadian Legal Wear]
+
 
+
[http://www.edeandravenscroft.co.uk/|Ede & Ravenscroft - Founded 1689, London's oldest tailor & robe maker]
+
 
+
[http://www.harcourts.com|Legal Dress Components]
+
 
+
[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-674043,00.html|Legal bigwigs in line for a modern makeover (Possible reform of British Legal Dress code)]
+
 
+
[http://www.harcourts.com|Harcourts Home Page Academic gowns, Legal attire and Clerical Vestments]
+
 
+
[http://www.dca.gov.uk/consult/courtdress/annexd.htm|Department for Constitutional Affairs Website (Looking at the possibility of changing British Legal Dress, with pictures)]
+
 
+
[http://www.tribunaux.qc.ca/mjq_en/c-quebec/reglement_ch01.htm|Cour du Qubec ORDER, DRESS CODE AND DECORUM DURING COURT HEARINGS]
+
 
+
[http://www.petit-costumesaudiences.com/barreau/barreau.asp|Atelier Mme Petit - Avocat ; Avoué ; Huissier de Justice]
+
 
+
[http://www.ca-paris.justice.fr/cour/fr/visite/fr/|La Cour d'appel de Paris et les Tribunaux du ressort (French judicial costumes)]
+
 
+
[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/03/uk_court_room_makeover/html/1.stm|BBC News | In Pictures; "Off with their wigs?" (Legal Dress)]
+
 
+
[http://www.roswell-usa.com/city/court/dress_code.htm|Roswell Municipal Court Dress Code]
+
 
+
[http://www.gnms.com/robes/robes.htm|Robes: Choir, Pulpit, Kids' Choir, Academic, Judicial, Children's Ceremony]
+
 
+
[http://www.cardozo.yu.edu/heyman/wigs.html|Wigs, Coifs]
+
 
+
[http://www.ca-paris.justice.fr/visite/fr/page/c_costumes_avocat.html|Les costumes judicaires à l'audience]
+
 
+
[http://www.sainternet.net/deguisement/patrons/avocat_patron.htm|Sainternet (Diagram for a robe avocat - French legal gown)]
+
 
+
[http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robe_d'avocat|Robe d'avocat - Wikipédia]
+
 
+
[http://www.lartisan-costumier.com/robe/robe-avocat.php|Robe d'avocat, robe avocat, costume d'audience par l'Artisan Costumier]
+
 
+
[http://www.ponsard-dumas.com/|Robe d'avocat, robe de magistrat, costume d'audience, robe magistrat, toge]
+
 
+
[http://www.lartisan-costumier.com/index.php|Robes avocats, toge, costumes religieux et robes confréries par l'Artisan Costumier]
+
 
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_dress|Court dress (Legal) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
+
 
+
[http://www.robe-avocat.fr/|Robes d'avocat à Paris, robes pour magistrats]
+
 
+
[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/211654.stm|BBC News | UK Politics | Lord Irvine angry over wigs]
+
 
+
[http://www.cardozo.net/life/spring1999/wigs/|Wigs, Coifs, and Other Idiosyncrasies of English Judicial Attire]
+
 
+
[[Galleryimages1809ranksbylambIndex|The Book of the Ranks and Dignities of British Society, 1809 ]]
+
 
+
[http://www.murphyrobes.com|Judicial Robes and Academic Robes]
+
 
+
[http://www.gaspard.ca/legal/legal.htm|Canadian Legal Apparel]
+
 
+
[http://www.robeshop.com/|Robes: Choir, Pulpit, Cap & Gown, Academic, Judicial, Kindergrad]
+
 
+
[http://www.chinamarket.com.cn/E/Showdetail/1691.html|Legal Wigs for sale]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Judge]]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Barrister Adult Halloween Costume]]
+
 
+
Librarians
+
 
+
[http://development.hsl.wisc.edu/bumpy/|eBay Sellers' Opinions about "Librarian" Clothing: Frumpy or Bumpy? The Website!]
+
 
+
Maternity & Breastfeeding
+
 
+
[http://www.clixgalore.com/Lead.asp?BID=962&AfID=11336&AdID=166|Maternity Department at the Stork's Store]
+
 
+
[http://www3.sk.sympatico.ca/fashin/|FASHION CONCEPTS for Breastfeeding]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/FashionAvenue/1622/|Maternity Fashion of the Stars!]
+
 
+
[http://www.elizabethlee.com/patterns/mompats.htm|Elizabeth Lee Designs - Patterns for the Breastfeeding Mom]
+
 
+
[http://www.history.org/history/clothing/women/motherhood2.cfm|Fashions of Motherhood]
+
 
+
[http://www.wrhs.org/template.asp?id=454|Dressing for Two - Western Reserve Historical Society]
+
 
+
Medical Dress
+
 
+
[http://costume.dm.net/Tailors/|The Milanese Tailor's Album-Men's Clothing (Includes pictures and patterns of Doctors Robes of the late 16th Century)]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/|ASK ANDY ABOUT CLOTHES]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/WWW/WWW/Doctor.htm|Dressing for the Medical Profession]
+
 
+
[http://dyk2.homestead.com/|Nurses Uniforms, Past and Present]
+
 
+
[http://www.nursepostcard.com/links.html|Zwerdling Nursing Archives Webring Page]
+
 
+
[http://www.memorialhall.mass.edu/collection/itempage.jsp?itemid=15050|Digital Collection - Student Nurse Uniform, c. 1950]
+
 
+
[http://www.allheart.com/nursingscrubs.html|Women's Scrubs & Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.scrubsrack.com/home.php|Discount Dansko, Urbane Scrubs, Discount Online Cherokee Medical Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.qualityscrubset.com/|Scrubs Discount Medical Scrubs Cheap]
+
 
+
[http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq59-31.htm|Uniform Regulations for Navy Nurse Corps, 1917]
+
 
+
[http://dmoz.org/Shopping/Clothing/Uniforms/Medical/|Open Directory - Shopping: Clothing: Uniforms: Medical]
+
 
+
[http://pages.tias.com/9080/PictPage/1922427341.html|Vintage Idaho LPN Nurse Cap (Scarves. Hats & Collars) at Copperton Lane Antiques & Collectibles]
+
 
+
[http://sewing.about.com/library/weekly/blnurse1.htm|Make Your Own Nurse Cap - Sewing]
+
 
+
[http://antiquescientifica.com/web.civil_war_confederate_surgeon's_coat.htm|CONFEDERATE SURGEON'S FROCK COAT]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com|The Travel Trunk. Your online store for our unusual range of products from all around the world.]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com/store.htm|Nurse, Maid and other Service uniforms in Vintage and Modern styles at The Travel Trunk Company]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com/hatsandcaps.htm|Nurse & Maid hats at The Travel Trunk Company]
+
 
+
[http://www.medicaltoys.com/uniforms.htm|Nurse Uniforms and Caps Medical Toys...............PVC- cotton- nurse cap-uniform-lab coat-nurse's-doctor's uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.uniformadvantage.com/UAShop/assets/html/homepage.asp?REFCODE=GOOG230|Medical Scrubs, Nursing Uniforms, and Medical Footwear - Uniform Advantage]
+
 
+
[http://www.animalkingdomscrubs.com/|Animal Kingdom Scrubs]
+
 
+
[http://www.made4mescrubs.com/|Scrubs, Medical Uniforms Custom Made at Made4MeScrubs.com]
+
 
+
Menstruation
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/rags/|THE RAGS: paraphernalia of menstruation]
+
 
+
Mourning
+
 
+
[http://www.costumegallery.com/LHJ/June_1895/Mourning/p19Intro.htm|Online Library: Ladies Home Journal: June 1895- Mourning and Its Usages]
+
 
+
[http://www.hairwork.com/|Hair Mourning Jewelry- Victorian Hairwork]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/vintageconnectionarchives/page18.html|Wearing Mourning; A True Friend, 1872]
+
 
+
[http://www.historic-northampton.org/1904/Hair_Jewelry_Exhibit/General_General_r.html|Hair Jewelry Exhibit]
+
 
+
[http://www.funeralmuseum.org/|Museum of Funeral Customs - History of American funeral and mourning customs, art and practice - Springfield, Illinois IL]
+
 
+
[http://www.sekise.co.jp/sougi/eng/eng1.html|JAPANESE FUNERAL STYLE 1]
+
 
+
[http://www.sekise.co.jp/sougi/eng/eng3.html|JAPANESE FUNERAL STYLE 3]
+
 
+
[http://www.chicagohs.org/AOTM/oct98/oct98fact2.html|Just the Arti-FACTS - Mourning Material]
+
 
+
[http://members.aol.com/wwhitby/mourn.html|Civil War-Period Mourning]
+
 
+
[http://www.msu.edu/user/beltranm/mourning/mourning.htm|Dressed For Mourning]
+
 
+
[http://www.khm.at/system2E.html?/staticE/page538.html|Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, Black Court Dress of the Empress Elisabeth of Austria]
+
 
+
[http://www.berkeley.edu/news/berkeleyan/1996/0327/death.html|[Victorian] Culture Speaks Through Its Ritual of Death]
+
 
+
[http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/dress/mourn.html|Regency Mourning]
+
 
+
[http://locutus.ucr.edu/~cathy/heid/ND12-1796.html|The Gallery of Fashion, December 1796]
+
 
+
[http://www.gbacg.org/mourning98.htm|A Day of Victorian Mourning]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/victorianlace11/mourning.html|Even better Victorian mourning page]
+
 
+
[http://www.msu.edu/user/beltranm/mourning/DEATH_EX.HTM|Death in America Exhibit]
+
 
+
[http://www.needlewoman.com/mourning_dress_back.htm|Mourning Back Detail]
+
 
+
[http://www.quilthistory.com/VMC.htm|Victorian Mourning Customs from Colliers]
+
 
+
[http://www.victoriana.com/library/harpers/funeral.html|Victoriana.Com, "Harpers Bazar" on Mourning]
+
 
+
==Police==
+
 
+
& Fire Uniforms
+
 
+
[http://dmoz.org/Shopping/Clothing/Uniforms/Public_Safety/|Police Open Directory - Shopping: Clothing: Uniforms: Public Safety]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com:0080/CapitolHill/7900/dmp-pics.html|Uniforms of the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP)]
+
 
+
[http://www.euronet.nl/~icu08601/intro.htm|Collectie Lohnstein Dutch Civil, Colonial Police and Military Uniform and Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.firehelmetbook.com/|Fireman's Headgear in America 1658-1918 - Casques de Pompier d'Amérique 1658-1918]
+
 
+
[http://www.officer.com/interactive/2006/08/04/kinder-gentler-police-uniforms/|Officer.com Police Blogs & Podcasts » Kinder, Gentler Police Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/|ASK ANDY ABOUT CLOTHES]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/WWW/WWW/wwwPoliceOfficers.htm|WWW Police Officer]
+
 
+
[http://www.madetomeasuremag.com/features/936389448.html|The Psychology of Uniforms]
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893to1898cuttersguide|The Cutter's Practical Guide ]] by W. D. F. Vincent, including:
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893cutters2a|Part 2]] 1893 edition, Body Coats of every description, embracing Morning, Frock and Dress Coats, Livery, Clerical, Naval, Military, Police and other Special Garments
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Rescue Services (Twentieth-Century Developments in Fashion and Costume)]]
+
 
+
Political Protest
+
 
+
[http://old.smh.com.au/news/specials/local/mardigras/2002/0203/02/news1.html|The party of protest - Mardi Gras 2002]
+
 
+
Parts of this relate:
+
 
+
[http://www.palestinecostumearchive.org/contemporary.htm|Contemporary Palestinian costume and embroidery]
+
 
+
[http://portrayer.co.uk/site/category.php?c=4+|Portrayer Publishers: Reproduction Suffragette medals and buttons]
+
 
+
[http://www.jofreeman.com/photos/MissAm1969.html|The 1969 Miss America Protest- Atlantic City]
+
 
+
[http://www.journalofaestheticsandprotest.org/index.html|The Journal of Aesthetics & Protest]
+
 
+
[http://www.journalofaestheticsandprotest.org/1/BenShepard/index.html|Absurd Responses vs. Earnest Politics]
+
 
+
[http://www.journalofaestheticsandprotest.org/1/masquerade/index.html|The Journal of Aesthetics & Protest: The Masquerade Project]
+
 
+
Politicians
+
 
+
[http://www.explore.parliament.uk/search/data.asp?r=185|Dress of British MPs]
+
 
+
[http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/fs52.pdf|PDF on Traditions of the Houses of Parliament, including dress.]
+
 
+
[http://www.newhousenews.com/archive/Rios011205.html|George Washington's Inaugural Suit?]
+
 
+
[http://www.metmuseum.org/special/se_event.asp?OccurrenceId={ACBF8E12-B196-11D4-93B6-00902786BF44}|The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Special Exhibitions: Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years: Selections from the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum]
+
 
+
[http://archive.salon.com/mwt/style/2001/04/16/dress_code/|Salon.com Life | Decoding the White House dress code]
+
 
+
[http://www.cr.nps.gov/museum/exhibits/revwar/image_gal/morrimg/suitGW.html|General George Washington's suit]
+
 
+
[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/inaug/fashion/dress.htm|WashingtonPost.com: State of the Union? A Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Palms/8961/Nepali.htm|Bathroom Slippers Banned in Nepali Parliament]
+
 
+
[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2030778.stm|BBC NEWS | World | Asia-Pacific | Trouser victory for Thai women MPs]
+
 
+
[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3070131.stm|BBC NEWS | Africa | Kenya MPs fight 'colonial' dress code]
+
 
+
[http://www.aegis.com/news/ips/2002/IP020204.html|POLITICS-SOUTH AFRICA: President Mbeki Sets his Agenda]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/home.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Sydney Australia]
+
 
+
[http://projects.powerhousemuseum.com/hsc/evrev/mao_suit.htm|Evolution and revolution: Chinese dress 1700s-1990s - Mao suit]
+
 
+
[http://www.zitantique.com/colorceramics.html|Chinese Political Propaganda Art Site (Mao era china figures in costume)]
+
 
+
[http://www.wwd.com/fashion-news/fashion-scoops/sarah-or-tina-1842095?justin=1842095|Palin v. Palin - Fashion Scoops - Fashion News - WWD.com]Palin balked at returning to her old style on TV, according to a costume designer for 'Saturday Night Live' who dressed the VP candidate and Fey. page 1
+
 
+
[http://www.guardian.co.uk/france/story/0,11882,718694,00.html|Guardian Unlimited | Special reports | The new Iron Lady (France Parliament Dress Code)]
+
 
+
[http://www.trinicenter.com/Raffique/2001/Jan/Breakingdown.htm|Raffique Shah - Breaking down the walls of Westminster (Trinidad Parliament Dress)]
+
 
+
[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/question_time/your_comments/525201.stm#6|Question Time: Cherie Blair's Clothing Allowance]
+
 
+
[http://www.abc.net.au/concon/games/bdhead.htm|Best Dressed Head of State Paper doll]
+
 
+
[http://www.wwd.com/fashion-news/fashion-scoops/sarah-or-tina-1842095?justin=1842095|Palin v. Palin - Fashion Scoops - Fashion News - WWD.com]
+
 
+
[http://www.bettybowers.com/bushglam.html|Welcome to Laura Bush's Guide to Republican Glamour!]
+
 
+
[http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1997/10/27/intl/intl.6.html|International - Britain's Conservatives Try But Fail to Dress for Success 1997]
+
 
+
Sarah Palin Halloween Costumes seemed to be big in 2008:
+
 
+
[http://creepyla.com/blog/2008/09/10/make-your-own-sarah-palin-costume-for-halloween/|Make your own Sarah Palin costume for Halloween — Creepy Los Angeles]
+
 
+
[http://www.ehow.com/how_4512908_sarah-palin-halloween-costume.html|How to Make a Sarah Palin Halloween Costume | eHow.com]
+
 
+
[http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1052147/the_sarah_palin_moose_hunter_costume.html|The Sarah Palin Moose Hunter Costume - Associated Content]
+
 
+
[http://gawker.com/5059995/re+thinking-your-sarah-palin-halloween-costume|Not Afraid To Be Servicey: Re-Thinking Your Sarah Palin Halloween Costume]
+
 
+
[http://in.news.yahoo.com/139/20081003/888/twl-sarah-palin-s-lipstick-on-a-pig-cost.html|Sarah Palin's 'lipstick on a pig' costumes a Halloween sell out - Yahoo! India News]
+
 
+
==Prisoners and Civil Badges==
+
 
+
[http://www.pink-triangle.org/ptps/symbol.html|Prisoners and Civil BadgesConcentration Camp Badges]
+
 
+
[http://www.igc.apc.org/ddickerson/jewish-badge.html|The Jewish Badge]
+
 
+
[http://remember.org/educate/elman.html|Triangles and Tribulations: The Politics of Nazi Symbols]
+
 
+
[http://www.jewishpeople.net/yellowstar.html|THE YELLOW STAR]
+
 
+
[http://international.loc.gov/intldl/mtfhtml/mfdigcol/mfdcphot.html#d|Selections from the George Kennan Papers (Siberian Gulags and Russian Officials in 1885)]
+
 
+
[http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/personalize-gays.html|Personalizing Nazis' Homosexual Victims]
+
 
+
[http://history1900s.about.com/homework/history1900s/library/holocaust/blbadgemen.htm|Holocaust: Photograph of Men Wearing the Yellow Badge]
+
 
+
[http://www.museumofworldwarii.com/TourText/Area07_Holocaust.htm|Museum of WWII -- The Holocaust (good images of Prisoner Uniforms)]
+
 
+
[http://www.judengasse.de/ehtml/Z249.htm|Infobank Judengasse: Jewish clothing. Second from right, Jew from Frankfurt with the statutory ring on his coat. Germany 1588 ]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/A9762.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Jacket, man's, convict, particoloured, wool, made in Britain, used in Australia, 1855-1880.]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/A7831.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Convict caps]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/A7832.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Convict cap]
+
 
+
[http://library.ushmm.org/faqs.htm#badges|US Holocaust Memorial Museum Library What did each of the identifying badges mean?]
+
 
+
[http://www.ushmm.org/uia-cgi/uia_query/photos?hr=null&query=kw168858|USHMM Information Access BADGES (STAR OF DAVID) Images]
+
 
+
[http://www.ushmm.org/uia-cgi/uia_doc/photos/4204?hr=null|Striped prison jacket with an inverted purple triangle badge]
+
 
+
[http://www.pxdirect.com/inmate_u.htm|PX: Direct Inmate Prisoner Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/8839-3.htm|JEWISH BADGE FROM FRANCE]
+
 
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_badge|Yellow badge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
+
 
+
[http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/yellowstar.htm|Yellow Star]
+
 
+
[http://www.ushmm.org/uia-cgi/uia_doc/photos/4213?hr=null|A yellow Star of David badge bearing the German word 'Jude' (Jew)]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Prison Tattoos]]
+
 
+
[http://www.madetomeasuremag.com/features/936389448.html|The Psychology of Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/76278.htm|Uniformed prisoners with triangular identifying badges]
+
 
+
[http://www.ushmm.org/uia-cgi/uia_doc/photos/4207?hr=null|Two concentration camp badges bearing purple triangles worn by Jehovah's Wittnesses.]
+
 
+
[http://banickfam.tripod.com/dress.html|Modesty Rules for visitors in the Wisconsin prison system ]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Gangs And Their Tattoos : Identifying Gangbangers On The Street And In Prison]]
+
 
+
[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/lat4-c68.html|Medieval Sourcebook: Lateran IV: Canon 68 - on Dress of Jews and Saracens]
+
 
+
[http://www.chgs.umn.edu/Educational_Resources/Curriculum/Auschwitz_Tattooing/auschwitz_tattooing.html|Auschwitz Tattooing]
+
 
+
Rock Stars
+
 
+
[http://ths.gardenweb.com/forums/load/sewing/msg031040035900.html|Elvis costume HELP! - Sewing Forum - GardenWeb]
+
 
+
[http://www.jumpsuitsupply.com/|Elvis Jumpsuits, Jumpsuit Supplies,Costume, Nailheads, Rhinestones]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/98-132-1.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Col Joye's suit Performance costume, rock music, jacket and trousers, cloth, used by Col Joye, Andy Ellis Exclusive Mens Wear, Australia, 1958-1961.]
+
 
+
[http://www.thecattbox.com/elvis%20collars.htm|elvis collars.htm]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/98-32-1.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Johnny O'Keefe's suit Suit, cotton/ velvet/ silk/ diamantes, worn by Johnny O'Keefe, made by Len Taylor, Australia, 1957-1959.]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/98-32-2.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Johnny O'Keefe's Suit, cotton/ fabric/ velvet, used by Johnny O'Keefe, Australia, 1956-1958.]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/98-32-3.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Johnny O'Keefe's Shoes (pair), leather/ metal/ fabric/ plastic, used by Johnny O'Keefe, [Australia], 1957-1959.]
+
 
+
Royalty, See Court Dress (Above)
+
 
+
==Servants, Household==
+
 
+
[[History100pages1900servants|Servants, HouseholdServant's Clothing of the Early 20th Century]]
+
 
+
Three volumes of from 1893-1898 of
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893to1898cuttersguide|The Cutter's Practical Guide ]] by W. D. F. Vincent, including:
+
 
+
[[History100pages1898cuttersguide1a|Part 1]] 1898 edition, Young Men's, Youths' and Juvenile Garments, Embracing also Treatise on Trousers, Vests, Military Garments, Liveries, etc., etc., etc.
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893cutters2a|Part 2]] 1893 edition, Body Coats of every description, embracing Morning, Frock and Dress Coats, Livery, Clerical, Naval, Military, Police and other Special Garments
+
 
+
[[History100pages1898cuttersguide9a|Part 9]]1898 edition, Jacket Cutting and Making, Embracing Lounges, Reefers & Patrol Jackets, in all their Varieties, Also Including the Cutting and Making of Robes and Gowns
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com|The Travel Trunk. Your online store for our unusual range of products from all around the world.]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com/store.htm|Nurse, Maid and other Service uniforms in Vintage and Modern styles at The Travel Trunk Company]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com/hatsandcaps.htm|Nurse & Maid hats at The Travel Trunk Company]
+
 
+
[http://www.medicaltoys.com/uniforms.htm|Nurse Uniforms and Caps Medical Toys...............PVC- cotton- nurse cap-uniform-lab coat-nurse's-doctor's uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.manchestergalleries.org/costume/narrative.php?irn=151&QueryPage=index.php&themeback=1&CostumeTheme=costume+sub-theme|Gallery of Costume - Collections Men's Servant Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/CultureAndLeisure/Museums/Exhibitions/EdwardianWakefield/TheBookOfTheHome/servants.htm|c.1900 Book of the Home Servants]
+
 
+
[http://www.manchestergalleries.org/costume/narrative.php?irn=165&QueryPage=index.php&themeback=1&CostumeTheme=costume+sub-theme|Gallery of Costume - Collections Women's Servant Dress]
+
 
+
==School Uniforms & Orphanage Uniforms==
+
 
+
[http://home.freeuk.net/mkb/SUG/SUG.html|School Uniforms, Dress codes & Orphanage UniformsThe School Uniform Galleries]
+
 
+
[http://dmoz.org/Shopping/Clothing/Uniforms/School/|Open Directory - Shopping: Clothing: Uniforms: School]
+
 
+
[http://www.asahi-jc.com/gakusei.htm|Gakuran--Japanese Traditional School Uniform] (Boys)
+
 
+
[http://www.asahi-jc.com/guniform.htm|Girls' School Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.ed.gov/updates/uniforms.html|Archived Manual on School Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.jbox.com/SEARCH/matsukameya_or_school_uniform/1/|Japanese School Uniforms & Accessories, both male and female]
+
 
+
[http://www.parkersu.com/|Parker School Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.jbox.com/SHRT/COST_1.html|Buy Japanese High School Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://jezebel.com/5055243/boys-makeup-gets-him-banned-from-school-what-lesson-does-he-learn|Boy's Makeup Gets Him Banned From School: What Lesson Does He Learn?] As if being a teenager in America were not hard enough Matt Allsup was confronted by administrators at Garfield
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/|Historical Boys Clothing]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/school_uniforms/|School Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.tcd.ie/Clubs/Boat/colours1936.php|Dublin University Boat Club - Club Colours 1936]
+
 
+
[[Tara1pagesHarrypotterfan|Frank Bee Costumes &.School UniformsHarry Potter School Robes & Costume Links]]
+
 
+
[http://www.blessings-catalog.com/schoolgirl1.html|Blessings Catholic School Girl Dolls]
+
 
+
[http://www.decaturdaily.com/decaturdaily/columnists/mitchchase/030512.shtml|Hartselle's Nazi-like dress code]
+
 
+
[http://www.witchvox.com/white/wdresscode.html|Samhain and The Dress Code]
+
 
+
[http://www.blsac.org/school/uniforms.htm|Blessed Sacrament School: Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://members.aol.com/dam0113/pe0001.htm|Russian Pioneer Students (captioned photo)]
+
 
+
[http://www.islamicproducts.com/chic.htm|Islamic Products Islamic Fashions & School Uniforms Muslim Clothing Islamic Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.madetomeasuremag.com/features/936389448.html|The Psychology of Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://frenchtoast.com/Default.asp?bhcd2=1092377481|French Toast School Uniforms, the school uniform superstore. You can purchase America's best selling school uniforms online.]
+
 
+
[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/mandatoryschooluniform|Yahoo! Groups : mandatoryschooluniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.perimeter.org/School/pcs_standarddress.html|Perimeter Christian School: Standardized Dress]
+
 
+
[http://www.jbox.com/SEARCHES/loose_socks/|Authentic Japanese Loose Socks at J-List]
+
 
+
[http://www.theledger.com/local/local/15unif.htm|Polk Schools Plan Uniform Sanctions]
+
 
+
[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DressCodeDiscipline|Yahoo! Groups : DressCodeDiscipline]
+
 
+
[http://www.members.tripod.com/rockqu/uniform.htm|The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, etc]
+
 
+
[http://www.pamu.com/|PARENTS AGAINST MANDATORY SCHOOL UNIFORMS]
+
 
+
[http://www.wilsoncountyparents.org/|The Wilson County Parents Coalition - Main Page]
+
 
+
[http://mandatoryschooluniform.org/|Mandatory School Uniforms - NOT!]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/hardingpj/uniforms.html|School Uniforms and Dress Codes: Legal Issues]
+
 
+
[http://www.witchvox.com/cases/lincoln_high.html|A Pentacle at Lincoln High = Indefinite Suspension]
+
 
+
[http://www.afa.net/homosexual_agenda/elliotsstory.asp|AFA Issues: Homosexual Agenda - Elliot's story]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/hardingpj/uniformsreligionandculture.html|School Uniforms and Dress Codes: Religion and Cultural Issues]
+
 
+
[http://www.nomoreuniforms.org/|INTERBORO PARENTS AGAINST UNIFORMS!]
+
 
+
[http://familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,5-3048,00.html?email|Uniform-ly mistaken]
+
 
+
[http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~daniel/hyperwriting/webarguments/marcoux/|School Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/school_uniforms.HTM|School Uniform Debate and Poll]
+
 
+
[http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/school_uniforms.HTM?survey|School Uniform Debate and Poll]
+
 
+
[http://www.aclu.org/congress/uniform.html|3-1-96 -- Point of View: School Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.aclu.org/news/n082198a.html|ACLU Press Release: 08-21-98 -- Parents Sue SC School Over Uniform Policy]
+
 
+
[http://debate.uvm.edu/eesample/084.html|SCHOOL UNIFORMS DO NOT DECREASE VIOLENCE OR INCREASE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT]
+
 
+
[http://www.aclu.org/features/f110499a.html|ACLU Feature: 11-04-99 -- All Dressed Up and Nowhere to Go: Students and Their Parents Fight School Uniform Policies]
+
 
+
[http://www.aclukswmo.org/students/students.html#anchor660648|Kansas and Western Missouri ACLU]
+
 
+
[http://www2.law.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/foliocgi.exe/historic/query=[group+393+u!2Es!2E+503!3A]^[group+citemenu!3A]^[level+case+citation!3A]^[group+notes!3A]/doc/{t44130}/hit_headings/words=4/pageitems={body}?|The Tinker Decision]
+
 
+
[http://pages.ivillage.com/studentrights/studentrights/index.html|Student Rights: Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7064436/|U.K. schoolgirl wins right to wear Islamic dress - World News - MSNBC.com]
+
 
+
[http://www.aclunc.org/aclunews/news198/oakland-uniforms.html|ACLU NEWS - Oakland School Board Approves Settlement in Uniform Lawsuit]
+
 
+
[[History100pages1893to1898cuttersguide|The Cutter's Practical Guide ]] by W. D. F. Vincent, including:
+
 
+
[[History100pages1898cuttersguide1a|Part 1]] 1898 edition, Young Men's, Youths' and Juvenile Garments, Embracing also Treatise on Trousers, Vests, Military Garments, Liveries, etc., etc., etc.
+
 
+
Scouts, and other children/youth group uniforms
+
 
+
[http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/canterbury/28/youth.html|boys uniformed youth groups]
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/|Historical Boys Clothing]
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/youth/youth/org/pio/pioneer-ussr.htm|Soviet young pioneer uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/youth/youth/org/pio/pioneer.htm|young pioneer uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_movement|Pioneer Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/youth/youth/org/nat/hitler/hitleru.htm|Hitler Youth Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://bdm.msshost.com/|{ Bund Deutscher Mädel } - a historical research site (History of the Hitler Youth "League of German Girls", including detailed information and scans of period sewing patterns for the uniforms)]
+
 
+
[http://www.girlscouts.org/program/gs_central/uniforms/|Girl Scout Central Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://members.tripod.com/~histclo/youth.html|boy scout and other youth groups]
+
 
+
[http://usmbooks.com/HJ-shoes.html|Original Hitlerjugend - HJ Boy Shoes]
+
 
+
Slavery
+
 
+
[http://members.tripod.com/~colonies/runaways/slaves.htm|Runaway Male Slave Clothing Descriptions in 1775, Virginia]
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/country/us/slave/cus-slave.html|United States boys clothes : slavery]
+
 
+
[http://americanhistory.si.edu/sweatshops/history/2t8.htm|nmah sweatshop exhibition -- slave clothing]
+
 
+
[http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASfood.htm|Food and Clothing (Slavery in America)]
+
 
+
[http://www.fabrics.net/joan121102.asp|Osnaburg the Great Part I -- Feedsacks on Our Backs]
+
 
+
[http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/slavery/osnabrig.html|The Osnabrig Shirt Slave Clothing in the Papers of George Washington]
+
 
+
[http://flagspot.net/flags/flagcap.html|The Cap of Liberty]
+
 
+
Special Needs (clothing for people with mobility limitations and other health needs)
+
 
+
[http://www.buckandbuck.com/categories/dresses.html|Buck and Buck Designs: Quality Clothing For Home Health Care and Nursing Home Residents]
+
 
+
Sports Dress
+
 
+
[[1848-49HintsonequestrianIndex|Hints on Equestrianism for the Fair Sex (Illustrated) 1848-1849]]
+
 
+
[http://www.barbelith.com/topic/20691|Barbelith Underground > Art, Fashion & Design > Jodhpurs and film directors]
+
 
+
[http://kingdomofstyle.typepad.co.uk/my_weblog/2007/09/make-your-own-b.html|Kingdom Of Style Make Your Own Breeches]
+
 
+
[http://www.equestriancollections.com/itemdesc.asp?ic=OUCG10001S&source=ChannelAdvisor&utm_source=ChannelAdvisor&utm_medium=CPC&utm_campaign=OUCG10001S|Kaminski Equestrian Top Hat - EQUESTRIAN COLLECTIONS.COM]
+
 
+
[http://www.theemporium.org.uk/|The Sidesaddle or Reenactment Emporium -Victorian Riding Attire]
+
 
+
[http://www.sexscrolls.com/jods.html|jodhpurs and tight english riding pants - equestrian gear]
+
 
+
[http://www.fabrics.net/joan502.asp|THE FLYING COSTUME OF HARRIET QUIMBY]
+
 
+
[http://www.poppiswim.com/|Google Answers: The British Army: The Wearing of Riding BreechesRetro Swimwear Poppi Swim & Sport, Portland, Oregon's Designer Bathing SuitSwimsuit Boutique for Women]
+
 
+
[http://www.ahiida.com/|Ahiida - Dynamic Muslim Women's Sportswear from Australia]
+
 
+
[http://www.ahiida.com/|Ahiida - Welcome]
+
 
+
[http://www.sidesaddleaustralia.com.au/history_of_the_side_saddle.htm|History of the Side Saddle]
+
 
+
[http://www.sidesaddleaustralia.com.au/correct_attire.htm|Correct Attire]
+
 
+
[http://nhh.glencarry.com/attire.htm|Proper Hunt Attire and Etiquette]
+
 
+
[http://www.formalwear.org/public/resources/tophat.html|History of the Top Hat]
+
 
+
[http://members.aol.com/munday6877/index.htm|Women in Scuba Suits, Spacesuits and Divers Suits]
+
 
+
[http://www.swim-it.com/aquabobber.cfm|Swim-It.com Aqua Sphere Aqua Bobber Kids Suit]
+
 
+
[http://users.aol.com/maskman30/gallery.html|Hockey Mask Galleries]
+
 
+
[http://www.russianlegacy.com/catalog/index.php?cPath=32_224|RussianLegacy.com Russian Football (Soccer) Fan Scarves]
+
 
+
[http://www.sakuramartialarts.com/|Sakura Martial Art Supply- Martial Arts Supplies Store Weapons Equipment Uniforms Gear Quarter Century Martial Arts Supply karate store depot]
+
 
+
[http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/exhibits/online_exhibits/dressed_to_the_nines/introduction.htm|National Baseball Hall of Fame - A History of the Baseball Uniform - Introduction]
+
 
+
[http://www.tcd.ie/Clubs/Boat/colours1936.php|Dublin University Boat Club - Club Colours 1936]
+
 
+
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/redirect?tag=thecostumersmani&path=search-handle-form|Ladies Rough Rider Frock Coats]
+
 
+
[http://nudiesrodeotailor.com/ssi/museum01.shtml|Nudies Rodeo Tailors official website of Nudies suits]
+
 
+
[http://www.uniformsexpress.com/|Customized Baseball Uniforms -- UNIFORMS EXPRESS]
+
 
+
[http://www.gallimauphry.com/april_2005.html|20th Century Men's Swimwear]
+
 
+
[http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/opac/2000-66.asp|Powerhouse Museum | Annette Kellerman Pro Swimmer & silent film star costumes]
+
 
+
[http://womenshistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa050900a.htm|Women and Bicycles - Fashion for the Active Woman, 1894 Style]
+
 
+
[http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~roseying/ids110/MENHIS.HTM|History of Men's Swimwear]
+
 
+
[http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~roseying/ids110/1FRAME.HTM|Swim Wear]
+
 
+
[http://alsharifa.com/|Modest Islamic Swimsuits, Swimwear, Hijabs | Alsharifa.com]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Naughty Victorians And Edwardians: Early Images Of Bathing Beauties]]
+
 
+
[http://www.victoriana.com/library/Beach/FashionableBathingSuits.htm|Victoriana.Com Articles, The History of the Fashionable Bathing Suit]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/early_swimwear.htm|Swimwear in the Early Days - Fashion History Pictures]
+
 
+
[http://www.tidewaterice.com/mondortights.htm|MDS Skate Sales- Mondor Figure Skating Tights for figure, ice and roller skating.]
+
 
+
[[History100pages1912thornton6|Riding And Cycling Dress Patterns c. 1912]]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/vintageconnectionarchives/page3.html|Length of Skirts 1905, and a 1904-5 Pattern of Riding Skirt]
+
 
+
[http://users.tinyworld.co.uk/sidesaddlelady/Museum%20-%20riding%20habits.html|Side Saddle Lady Museum, history of riding habits]
+
 
+
[http://users.tinyworld.co.uk/sidesaddlelady/Exhibits%20-%20riding%20habits.html|Side Saddle Lady Museum, riding habit exhibits]
+
 
+
[http://horses.about.com/cs/ridingclothes/|Equestrian Clothing]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/early_swimwear.htm|Past Swimwear]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/swimwear.htm|Swimwear]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/the_seaside.htm#Seaside Fashions|Vict'n/Edw Seaside]
+
 
+
[http://www.memphisathletic.com/|Memphis Athletic]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/sports_fashion_until_1960.htm|Early Sports Fashion]
+
 
+
[http://www.fashion-era.com/fitness_fashion_after_1960.htm|C20th Fitness Fashion]
+
 
+
[http://www.classicaldressage.com/photos/faltejsek.html|Dorothee Faltejsek Photo Archive - Classical Dressage (Side Saddle Attire)]
+
 
+
[http://www.suitability.com|SuitAbility equestrian apparel sewing patterns]
+
 
+
[http://www.horse-rider-etc.com/clothing/plus.html|Plus Size Equestrian Clothing]
+
 
+
[http://www.messdress-britishmilitaria.com/New/new_pinks.html|Hunting "Pinks"]
+
 
+
[http://www.westernpatterns.com/|Lola Gentry's Original Sewing Patterns for Western and English Riding Apparel]
+
 
+
Stripper Costumes
+
 
+
See
+
 
+
[[Store100pagesKinky#Stripper|Kinky Costume Links Page]] (Warning, Graphic Images)
+
 
+
Travel
+
 
+
[http://www.travelsmith.com/ts/home.jsp?BV_SessionID=@@@@1477048255.1048336865@@@@&BV_EngineID=cccjadchlfhhlhecgencfhjdfjmdhfl.0|Welcome to TravelSmith]
+
 
+
[http://www.journeywoman.com/ccc/ccc-p.html|Journeywoman - What Should I Wear?] (Travel advice on acceptable clothing for locations all around the world)
+
 
+
Working Uniforms, Peasants and Business Dress
+
 
+
[http://www.workingclassclothes.com/|Working Class Clothes provides tough clothes for tough jobs at discount prices and made in the USA]
+
 
+
[http://www.carhartt.com/|Carhartt]
+
 
+
[http://www.madetomeasuremag.com/features/stanherman.html|Interview with Stan Herman, Uniform Designer]
+
 
+
[http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/workman5/index.htm|National Park Service: Uniforms (The Developing Years)]
+
 
+
[http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-conflicts-periods/ww2/land-army.htm|Women's Land Army WW2 in Australia]
+
 
+
[http://www.utilikilts.com/| UTILIKILTS American Made Utility Kilts for Everyday Wear]
+
 
+
[http://homepage.mac.com/festive_attyre/gallery/flemish/flemish.html|Flemish Working-Class Dress 16th Century]
+
 
+
[http://www.vincents.demon.co.uk/stays/ordwomen.htm|WORKING CLASS COSTUME OF 17th CENTURY WOMEN]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com|The Travel Trunk. Your online store for our unusual range of products from all around the world.]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com/store.htm|Nurse, Maid and other Service uniforms in Vintage and Modern styles at The Travel Trunk Company]
+
 
+
[http://www.traveltrunk.com/hatsandcaps.htm|Nurse & Maid hats at The Travel Trunk Company]
+
 
+
[http://www.medicaltoys.com/uniforms.htm|Nurse Uniforms and Caps Medical Toys...............PVC- cotton- nurse cap-uniform-lab coat-nurse's-doctor's uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.madetomeasuremag.com/features/936389448.html|The Psychology of Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://costume.dm.net/lowerclass/flemish-dress.html|Working Women's Dress in 16th Century Flanders]
+
 
+
[http://www.workingclassclothes.com/shirt%20links.htm|Tough Clothes for tough jobs and More at DISCOUNT prices!]
+
 
+
[http://homepage.mac.com/festive_attyre/gallery/pluderhose/fwm1.html|Working-class man's costume in Flanders]
+
 
+
[http://www.customuniformcompany.com/Custom.html|Custom Uniform Company: Custom Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.archive.org/details/protectiveclothi00grearich|Internet Archive: Free Download: Protective clothing for women and girl workers employed in the factories and workshops, 1917, Great Britain, Home Office.]
+
 
+
[[File:History100pages18thprole.htm|Proletarian and Peasant Dress in 18th Century France ]]
+
 
+
[http://www.bartol.udel.edu/~spiczak/picard/pics/preparations.html|Clothing Preparations for an Antarctica Expedition]
+
 
+
Wigan Pit Brow Girls:
+
 
+
[http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/paraguay/678/pitlasses.html|Wigan's Pit Brow Lasses]
+
 
+
[http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/paraguay/678/pitlasslife.html|The Life of a Pit lass]
+
 
+
[http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/paraguay/678/pitwench.html|A Pit Brow Wench For Me]
+
 
+
[http://www.wiganshades.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/wigan_mines.htm|Wigan Mines]
+
 
+
[http://home.cua.edu/isadore/view.exhibit/351|The Dinner Hour at Wigan]
+
 
+
Other
+
 
+
[http://www.uniformology.com/|Welcome to Uniformology]
+
 
+
[http://www.pro.gov.uk/virtualmuseum/maingalleries/birth/pit_girls/default.htm|Public Record Office | Virtual Museum | Birth, Marriage & Death]
+
 
+
[http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/7947/|Women in Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.phxart.org/pastexhibitions/new_nomads.asp|Phoenix Art Museum - New Nomads]
+
 
+
[http://www.madetomeasuremag.com/features/936389448.html|The Psychology of Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.maryevans.com/ml_28.htm|MEPL - Suffrage - WSPU Fashion]
+
 
+
[http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/canterbury/28/index.html|Historical Boys Clothing]
+
 
+
[http://www.creepy-ts.com/theironhook.html|The Iron Hook] "Pirate" hooks & more
+
 
+
[http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-uniforms/00-uniforms-cat-index.htm|Uniforms; a Category Index]
+
 
+
[http://www.phxart.org/pastexhibitions/motorcyclejacket.asp|Phoenix Art Museum - Motorcycle Jacket]
+
 
+
[http://www.womenuniforms.com/|Sex and Sexability - A history of costume and uniform sex]
+
 
+
[http://www.uniform-4u.com/|Uniform 4U - Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://uniformslist.com/|Uniforms List Uniforms]
+
 
+
[http://www.firstcommunionveils.com/|firstcommunionveils]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/|ASK ANDY ABOUT CLOTHES]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/Teasers/Teasers/PajamasHistoryof.htm|Pajamas - History of]
+
 
+
[http://www.askandyaboutclothes.com/WWW/WWW/wwwTelevision.htm|What to Wear on TV]
+
 
+
[http://histclo.hispeed.com/|Historical Boys Clothing]
+
 
+
[[Galleryimages1809ranksbylambIndex|The Book of the Ranks and Dignities of British Society, 1809 ]]
+
 
+
[http://www.ananova.com/business/story/sm_266201.html|Ananova - Union hails Goofy costume ruling]
+
 
+
[http://www.timesunion.com/AspStories/story.asp?storyID=69768|'Racially offensive costume stirs campus furor' - timesunion.com]
+
 
+
[http://www.thesleaze.co.uk/youngnazis.html|The Sleaze Issue 33 - Saturday Night Fuhrer!]
+
 
+
[http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/|Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State University]
+
 
+
[http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1083/is_9_76/ai_90837113|Dance Magazine: Breaking the code: no matter how strict the dress code, you can always find a way to express your individuality]
+
 
+
[http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/4716620.htm|Philadelphia Inquirer | 12/14/2002 | Tribal wearfare] (dress and group identity)
+
 
+
[http://www.flickr.com/groups/superhero-costumes/|flickr Superhero Costumes - Comic Cons and Convention Photos]
+
 
+
[http://www.flickr.com/groups/624141@N24/|flickr tights & costumes for men]
+
 
+
[http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199798/cmstand/b/st980609/pm/80609s01.htm|The United Kingdom Parliament Powers to require removal of masks etc.]
+
 
+
[[File:h.t| Kid's Astronaut Hat in White and Silver]]
+
 
+
[http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/cuhags/links/uniform.htm|C.U.H.& G.S. -- Links -- Uniform]
+
 
+
[http://www.materialreligion.org/journal/army.html|Uniforms and fund-raising: Material practices in the Salvation Army]
+
 
+
[http://www.sbu.ac.uk/~stafflag/icons.html#Green carnation|The Green Carnation of Wilde]
+
  
 
==Product Links==
 
==Product Links==
  
[http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924032402590|Internet Archive: Free Download: The heritage of dress; being notes on the history and evolution of clothes 1908]
+
[[File:AmazonBooksPeriodcostforstageandscreen3.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/088734609X/thecostumersmani| Period Costume for Stage & Screen : Patterns for Women's Dress, 1800-1909]]  Period Costume for Stage & Screen : Patterns for Women's Dress, 1800-1909
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooks5Uniformswhy.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0618067469/thecostumersmani| Uniforms: Why We Are What We Wear]]  Uniforms: Why We Are What We Wear
+
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooksKeepersofthekingdom.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0865652023/thecostumersmani| Keepers of the Kingdom : The Ancient Offices of Britain]]  Keepers of the Kingdom : The Ancient Offices of Britain
+
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooks8Americanpresidentsandfirstladiescdrom.jpeg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0486995712/thecostumersmani| American Presidents and First Ladies CD-ROM and Book]]  American Presidents and First Ladies CD-ROM and Book
+
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooksAppearanceandpower.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1859732984/thecostumersmani| Appearance and Power (Dress, Body, Culture Series)]]  Appearance and Power (Dress, Body, Culture Series)
+
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooksRoyalfamilyofbritan.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0486278239/thecostumersmani| Royal Family of Britain Paper Dolls]]  Royal Family of Britain Paper Dolls
+
 
+
[[File:AmazonOther2Segway.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/B00007EPJ6/thecostumersmani| Segway Human Transporter -- First come, first served for delivery starting March 2003]]  Segway Human Transporter -- First come, first served for delivery starting March 2003
+
 
+
[[File:AmazonBooksPrincessdianaprincecharlespaper.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0486249611/thecostumersmani| Princess Diana and Prince Charles Fashion Paper Dolls in Full Color]]  Princess Diana and Prince Charles Fashion Paper Dolls in Full Color
+
 
+
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Revision as of 01:17, 23 January 2014

Oscar Wilde on Dress Reform Articles from The Woman

FashiondressImagesWilde.jpg"One should either be a work of art, or wear a work of art."'Oscar Wilde on Fashion and Dress Reform

Articles from The Woman's World 1888-1890

"Fashion is what one wears oneself, and

what is unfashionable is what other people wear"

FashiondressImagesOscar.gif(Text provided by

e-Texts)

SLAVES OF FASHION

WOMAN'S DRESS

MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM

COSTUME

ManifestoHistory#MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM

SLAVES OF FASHION

Miss Leffler-Arnim's statement, in a lecture delivered recently atSt. Saviour's Hospital, that "she had heard of instances whereladies were so determined not to exceed the fashionable measurementthat they had actually held on to a cross-bar while their maidsfastened the fifteen-inch corset," has excited a good deal ofincredulity, but there is nothing really improbable in it. Fromthe sixteenth century to our own day there is hardly any form oftorture that has not been inflicted on girls, and endured by women,in obedience to the dictates of an unreasonable and monstrousFashion. "In order to obtain a real Spanish figure," says Montaigne, "what a Gehenna of suffering will not women endure,drawn in and compressed by great coches entering the flesh; nay,

sometimes they even die thereof!" "A few days after my arrival atschool," Mrs. Somerville tells us in her memoirs, "althoughperfectly straight and well made, I was enclosed in stiff stays,with a steel busk in front; while above my frock, bands drew myshoulders back till the shoulder-blades met. Then a steel rod witha semi-circle, which went under my chin, was clasped to the steelbusk in my stays. In this constrained state I and most of theyounger girls had to prepare our lessons"; and in the life of MissEdgeworth we read that, being sent to a certain fashionableestablishment, "she underwent all the usual tortures of back-boards, iron collars and dumbs, and also (because she was a verytiny person) the unusual one of being hung by the neck to draw outthe muscles and increase the growth," a signal failure in her case.Indeed, instances of absolute mutilation and misery are so commonin the past that it is unnecessary to multiply them; but it isreally sad to think that in our own day a civilized woman can hangon to a cross-bar while her maid laces her waist into a fifteen-inch circle. To begin with, the waist is not a circle at all, butan oval; nor can there be any greater error than to imagine that anunnaturally small waist gives an air of grace, or even ofslightness, to the whole figure. Its effect, as a rule, is simplyto exaggerate the width of the shoulders and the hips; and thosewhose figures possess that stateliness which is called stoutness by

the vulgar, convert what is a quality into a defect by yielding tothe silly edicts of Fashion on the subject of tight-lacing. Thefashionable English waist, also, is not merely far too small, andconsequently quite out of proportion to the rest of the figure, butit is worn far too low down. I use the expression "worn"advisedly, for a waist nowadays seems to be regarded as an articleof apparel to be put on when and where one likes. A long waistalways implies shortness of the lower limbs, and, from the artisticpoint of view, has the effect of diminishing the height; and I amglad to see that many of the most charming women in Paris arereturning to the idea of the Directoire style of dress. This styleis not by any means perfect, but at least it has the merit ofindicating the proper position of the waist. I feel quite surethat all English women of culture and position will set their faces

against such stupid and dangerous practices as are related by Miss Leffler-Arnim. Fashion's motto is: Il faut souffrir pour etrebelle; but the motto of art and of common-sense is: Il faut etrebete pour souffrir.

SLAVES OF FASHION

The Importance of Being Earnest

AmazonVideoWilde.gif

Wilde

Theatre and Fashion : Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes

Dandies : Fashion and Finesse in Art and Culture

Peacock Jacket

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File:H.t

Talking of Fashion, a critic in the Pall Mall Gazelle expresses hissurprise that I should have allowed an illustration of a hat,

covered with "the bodies of dead birds," to appear in the first

number of the Woman's World; and as I have received many letters onthe subject, it is only right that I should state my exact positionin the matter. Fashion is such an essential part of the mundusmuliebris of our day, that it seems to me absolutely necessary thatits growth, development, and phases should be duly chronicled; andthe historical and practical value of such a record dependsentirely upon its perfect fidelity to fact. Besides, it is quiteeasy for the children of light to adapt almost any fashionable formof dress to the requirements of utility and the demands of goodtaste. The Sarah Bernhardt tea-gown, for instance, figured in thepresent issue, has many good points about it, and the giganticdress-improver does not appear to me to be really essential to themode; and though the Postillion costume of the fancy dress ball isabsolutely detestable in its silliness and vulgarity, the so-calledLate Georgian costume in the same plate is rather pleasing. Imust, however, protest against the idea that to chronicle thedevelopment of Fashion implies any approval of the particular formsthat Fashion may adopt.

WOMAN'S DRESS

The "Girl Graduate" must of course have precedence, not merely forher sex but for her sanity: her letter is extremely sensible. Shemakes two points: that high heels are a necessity for any lady whowishes to keep her dress clean from the Stygian mud of our streets,and that without a tight corset the ordinary number of petticoatsand etceteras' cannot be properly or conveniently held up. Now, itis quite true that as long as the lower garments are suspended fromthe hips a corset is an absolute necessity; the mistake lies in notsuspending all apparel from the shoulders. In the latter case acorset becomes useless, the body is left free and unconfined forrespiration and motion, there is more health, and consequently morebeauty. Indeed all the most ungainly and uncomfortable articles of

dress that fashion has ever in her folly prescribed, not the tight

corset merely, but the farthingale, the vertugadin, the hoop, the

crinoline, and that modern monstrosity the so-called "dress

improver" also, all of them have owed their origin to the same

error, the error of not seeing that it is from the shoulders, and

from the shoulders only, that all garments should be hung.

And as regards high heels, I quite admit that some additional

height to the shoe or boot is necessary if long gowns are to be

worn in the street; but what I object to is that the height should

be given to the heel only, and not to the sole of the foot also.

The modern high-heeled boot is, in fact, merely the clog of the

time of Henry VI., with the front prop left out, and its inevitable

effect is to throw the body forward, to shorten the steps, and

consequently to produce that want of grace which always followswant of freedom.

Why should clogs be despised? Much art has been expended on clogs.They have been made of lovely woods, and delicately inlaid withivory, and with mother-of-pearl. A clog might be a dream ofbeauty, and, if not too high or too heavy, most comfortable also.But if there be any who do not like clogs, let them try someadaptation of the trouser of the Turkish lady, which is loose roundthe limb and tight at the ankle.

The "Girl Graduate," with a pathos to which I am not insensible,

entreats me not to apotheosize "that awful, befringed, beflounced,and bekilted divided skirt." Well, I will acknowledge that thefringes, the flounces, and the kilting do certainly defeat thewhole object of the dress, which is that of ease and liberty; but Iregard these things as mere wicked superfluities, tragic proofsthat the divided skirt is ashamed of its own division. The

principle of the dress is good, and, though it is not by any meansperfection, it is a step towards it.

Here I leave the "Girl Graduate," with much regret, for Mr.

Wentworth Huyshe. Mr. Huyshe makes the old criticism that Greekdress is unsuited to our climate, and, to me the somewhat newassertion, that the men's dress of a hundred years ago waspreferable to that of the second part of the seventeenth century,which I consider to have been the exquisite period of Englishcostume.

Now, as regards the first of these two statements, I will say, to

begin with, that the warmth of apparel does not depend really onthe number of garments worn, but on the material of which they aremade. One of the chief faults of modern dress is that it iscomposed of far too many articles of clothing, most of which are ofthe wrong substance; but over a substratum of pure wool, such as issupplied by Dr. Jaeger under the modern German system, somemodification of Greek costume is perfectly applicable to our climate, our country and our century. This important fact hasalready been pointed out by Mr. E. W. Godwin in his excellent,though too brief handbook on Dress, contributed to the HealthExhibition. I call it an important fact because it makes almostany form of lovely costume perfectly practicable in our cold climate. Mr. Godwin, it is true, points out that the Englishladies of the thirteenth century abandoned after some time theflowing garments of the early Renaissance in favour of a tightermode, such as Northern Europe seems to demand. This I quite admit,and its significance; but what I contend, and what I am sure Mr.Godwin would agree with me in, is that the principles, the laws ofGreek dress may be perfectly realized, even in a moderately tightgown with sleeves: I mean the principle of suspending all apparel from the shoulders, and of relying for beauty of effect not on the

stiff ready-made ornaments of the modern milliner--the bows wherethere should be no bows, and the flounces where there should be noflounces--but on the exquisite play of light and line that one getsfrom rich and rippling folds. I am not proposing any antiquarianrevival of an ancient costume, but trying merely to point out theright laws of dress, laws which are dictated by art and not byarchaeology, by science and not by fashion; and just as the bestwork of art in our days is that which combines classic grace withabsolute reality, so from a continuation of the Greek principles ofbeauty with the German principles of health will come, I feelcertain, the costume of the future.

And now to the question of men's dress, or rather to Mr. Huyshe'sclaim of the superiority, in point of costume, of the last quarterof the eighteenth century over the second quarter of the

seventeenth. The broad-brimmed hat of 1640 kept the rain of winterand the glare of summer from the face; the same cannot be said ofthe hat of one hundred years ago, which, with its comparativelynarrow brim and high crown, was the precursor of the modern"chimney-pot": a wide turned-down collar is a healthier thing thana strangling stock, and a short cloak much more comfortable than asleeved overcoat, even though the latter may have had "three capes"; a cloak is easier to put on and off, lies lightly on theshoulder in summer, and wrapped round one in winter keeps oneperfectly warm. A doublet, again, is simpler than a coat andwaistcoat; instead of two garments one has one; by not being openalso it protects the chest better.

Short loose trousers are in every way to be preferred to the tight

knee-breeches which often impede the proper circulation of the

blood; and finally, the soft leather boots which could be worn

above or below the knee, are more supple, and give consequentlymore freedom, than the stiff Hessian which Mr. Huyshe so praises.I say nothing about the question of grace and picturesqueness, forI suppose that no one, not even Mr. Huyshe, would prefer amaccaroni to a cavalier, a Lawrence to a Vandyke, or the thirdGeorge to the first Charles; but for ease, warmth and comfort thisseventeenth-century dress is infinitely superior to anything thatcame after it, and I do not think it is excelled by any precedingform of costume. I sincerely trust that we may soon see in Englandsome national revival of it.

MORE RADICAL IDEAS UPON DRESS REFORM

I have been much interested at reading the large amount of

correspondence that has been called forth by my recent lecture onDress. It shows me that the subject of dress reform is one that isoccupying many wise and charming people, who have at heart theprinciples of health, freedom, and beauty in costume, and I hopethat "H. B. T." and "Materfamilias" will have all the realinfluence which their letters--excellent letters both of them--

certainly deserve.

I turn first to Mr. Huyshe's second letter, and the drawing that

accompanies it; but before entering into any examination of the

theory contained in each, I think I should state at once that I

have absolutely no idea whether this gentleman wears his hair longor short, or his cuffs back or forward, or indeed what he is likeat all. I hope he consults his own comfort and wishes in

everything which has to do with his dress, and is allowed to enjoythat individualism in apparel which he so eloquently claims forhimself, and so foolishly tries to deny to others; but I reallycould not take Mr. Wentworth Huyshe's personal appearance as anyintellectual basis for an investigation of the principles whichshould guide the costume of a nation. I am not denying the force,or even the popularity, of the "'Eave arf a brick" school ofcriticism, but I acknowledge it does not interest me. The gamin inthe gutter may be a necessity, but the gamin in discussion is anuisance. So I will proceed at once to the real point at issue,the value of the late eighteenth-century costume over that worn inthe second quarter of the seventeenth: the relative merits, thatis, of the principles contained in each. Now, as regards theeighteenth-century costume, Mr. Wentworth Huyshe acknowledges thathe has had no practical experience of it at all; in fact he makes apathetic appeal to his friends to corroborate him in his assertion,which I do not question for a moment, that he has never been"guilty of the eccentricity" of wearing himself the dress which heproposes for general adoption by others. There is something sonaive and so amusing about this last passage in Mr. Huyshe's letter

that I am really in doubt whether I am not doing him a wrong in

regarding him as having any serious, or sincere, views on the

question of a possible reform in dress; still, as irrespective of

any attitude of Mr. Huyshe's in the matter, the subject is in

itself an interesting one, I think it is worth continuing,particularly as I have myself worn this late eighteenth-centurydress many times, both in public and in private, and so may claimto have a very positive right to speak on its comfort andsuitability. The particular form of the dress I wore was verysimilar to that given in Mr. Godwin's handbook, from a print of Northcote's, and had a certain elegance and grace about it whichwas very charming; still, I gave it up for these reasons:- After afurther consideration of the laws of dress I saw that a doublet isa far simpler and easier garment than a coat and waistcoat, and, ifbuttoned from the shoulder, far warmer also, and that tails have noplace in costume, except on some Darwinian theory of heredity; from

absolute experience in the matter I found that the excessive

tightness of knee-breeches is not really comfortable if one wearsthem constantly; and, in fact, I satisfied myself that the dress isnot one founded on any real principles. The broad-brimmed hat andloose cloak, which, as my object was not, of course, historicalaccuracy but modern ease, I had always worn with the costume inquestion, I have still retained, and find them most comfortable.

Well, although Mr. Huyshe has no real experience of the dress heproposes, he gives us a drawing of it, which he labels, somewhatprematurely, "An ideal dress." An ideal dress of course it is not;"passably picturesque," he says I may possibly think it; well,passably picturesque it may be, but not beautiful, certainly,simply because it is not founded on right principles, or, indeed,on any principles at all. Picturesqueness one may get in a varietyof ways; ugly things that are strange, or unfamiliar to us, forinstance, may be picturesque, such as a late sixteenth-centurycostume, or a Georgian house. Ruins, again, may be picturesque,but beautiful they never can be, because their lines aremeaningless. Beauty, in fact, is to be got only from theperfection of principles; and in "the ideal dress" of Mr. Huyshethere are no ideas or principles at all, much less the perfectionof either. Let us examine it, and see its faults; they are obviousto any one who desires more than a "Fancy-dress ball" basis forcostume. To begin with, the hat and boots are all wrong. Whateverone wears on the extremities, such as the feet and head, should,for the sake of comfort, be made of a soft material, and for thesake of freedom should take its shape from the way one chooses towear it, and not from any stiff, stereotyped design of hat or bootmaker. In a hat made on right principles one should be able toturn the brim up or down according as the day is dark or fair, dryor wet; but the hat brim of Mr. Huyshe's drawing is perfectlystiff, and does not give much protection to the face, or thepossibility of any at all to the back of the head or the ears, incase of a cold east wind; whereas the bycocket, a hat made inaccordance with the right laws, can be turned down behind and atthe sides, and so give the same warmth as a hood. The crown,again, of Mr. Huyshe's hat is far too high; a high crown diminishesthe stature of a small person, and in the case of any one who istall is a great inconvenience when one is getting in and out ofhansoms and railway carriages, or passing under a street awning:in no case is it of any value whatsoever, and being useless it isof course against the principles of dress.

As regards the boots, they are not quite so ugly or so

uncomfortable as the hat; still they are evidently made of stiff

leather, as otherwise they would fall down to the ankle, whereas

the boot should be made of soft leather always, and if worn high atall must be either laced up the front or carried well over the

knee: in the latter case one combines perfect freedom for walkingtogether with perfect protection against rain, neither of whichadvantages a short stiff boot will ever give one, and when one isresting in the house the long soft boot can be turned down as theboot of 1640 was. Then there is the overcoat: now, what are theright principles of an overcoat? To begin with, it should becapable of being easily put on or off, and worn over any kind ofdress; consequently it should never have narrow sleeves, such asare shown in Mr. Huyshe's drawing. If an opening or slit for thearm is required it should be made quite wide, and may be protectedby a flap, as in that excellent overall the modern Inverness cape;secondly, it should not be too tight, as otherwise all freedom ofwalking is impeded. If the young gentleman in the drawing buttonshis overcoat he may succeed in being statuesque, though that Idoubt very strongly, but he will never succeed in being swift; his super-totus is made for him on no principle whatsoever; a super- totus, or overall, should be capable of being worn long or short,quite loose or moderately tight, just as the wearer wishes; heshould be able to have one arm free and one arm covered or botharms free or both arms covered, just as he chooses for hisconvenience in riding, walking, or driving; an overall again shouldnever be heavy, and should always be warm: lastly, it should becapable of being easily carried if one wants to take it off; infact, its principles are those of freedom and comfort, and a cloakrealizes them all, just as much as an overcoat of the patternsuggested by Mr. Huyshe violates them.

The knee-breeches are of course far too tight; any one who has wornthem for any length of time--any one, in fact, whose views on thesubject are not purely theoretical--will agree with me there; likeeverything else in the dress, they are a great mistake. Thesubstitution of the jacket for the coat and waistcoat of the periodis a step in the right direction, which I am glad to see; it is,however, far too tight over the hips for any possible comfort.

Whenever a jacket or doublet comes below the waist it should beslit at each side. In the seventeenth century the skirt of the

jacket was sometimes laced on by points and tags, so that it couldbe removed at will, sometimes it was merely left open at the sides:in each case it exemplified what are always the true principles ofdress, I mean freedom and adaptability to circumstances.

Finally, as regards drawings of this kind, I would point out that

there is absolutely no limit at all to the amount of "passably

picturesque" costumes which can be either revived or invented forus; but that unless a costume is founded on principles and

exemplified laws, it never can be of any real value to us in the

reform of dress. This particular drawing of Mr. Huyshe's, for

instance, proves absolutely nothing, except that our grandfathersdid not understand the proper laws of dress. There is not a singlerule of right costume which is not violated in it, for it gives usstiffness, tightness and discomfort instead of comfort, freedom andease.

Now here, on the other hand, is a dress which, being founded onprinciples, can serve us as an excellent guide and model; it hasbeen drawn for me, most kindly, by Mr. Godwin from the Duke ofNewcastle's delightful book on horsemanship, a book which is one ofour best authorities on our best era of costume. I do not ofcourse propose it necessarily for absolute imitation; that is notthe way in which one should regard it; it is not, I mean, a revivalof a dead costume, but a realization of living laws. I give it asan example of a particular application of principles which areuniversally right. This rationally dressed young man can turn hishat brim down if it rains, and his loose trousers and boots down ifhe is tired--that is, he can adapt his costume to circumstances;then he enjoys perfect freedom, the arms and legs are not madeawkward or uncomfortable by the excessive tightness of narrowsleeves and knee-breeches, and the hips are left quite untrammelled, always an important point; and as regards comfort,his jacket is not too loose for warmth, nor too close forrespiration; his neck is well protected without being strangled,and even his ostrich feathers, if any Philistine should object tothem, are not merely dandyism, but fan him very pleasantly, I amsure, in summer, and when the weather is bad they are no doubt leftat home, and his cloak taken out. THE VALUE OF THE DRESS IS SIMPLYTHAT EVERY SEPARATE ARTICLE OF IT EXPRESSES A LAW. My young man isconsequently apparelled with ideas, while Mr. Huyshe's young man isstiffened with facts; the latter teaches one nothing; from theformer one learns everything. I need hardly say that this dress isgood, not because it is seventeenth century, but because it isconstructed on the true principles of costume, just as a squarelintel or pointed arch is good, not because one may be Greek andthe other Gothic, but because each of them is the best method ofspanning a certain-sized opening, or resisting a certain weight.The fact, however, that this dress was generally worn in Englandtwo centuries and a half ago shows at least this, that the rightlaws of dress have been understood and realized in our country, andso in our country may be realized and understood again. As regardsthe absolute beauty of this dress and its meaning, I should like tosay a few words more. Mr. Wentworth Huyshe solemnly announces that"he and those who think with him" cannot permit this question ofbeauty to be imported into the question of dress; that he and thosewho think with him take "practical views on the subject," and soon. Well, I will not enter here into a discussion as to how farany one who does not take beauty and the value of beauty intoaccount can claim to be practical at all. The word practical isnearly always the last refuge of the uncivilized. Of all misusedwords it is the most evilly treated. But what I want to point outis that beauty is essentially organic; that is, it comes, not fromwithout, but from within, not from any added prettiness, but from the perfection of its own being; and that consequently, as the bodyis beautiful, so all apparel that rightly clothes it must bebeautiful also in its construction and in its lines.

I have no more desire to define ugliness than I have daring to

define beauty; but still I would like to remind those who mock at

beauty as being an unpractical thing of this fact, that an ugly

thing is merely a thing that is badly made, or a thing that does

not serve it purpose; that ugliness is want of fitness; thatugliness is failure; that ugliness is uselessness, such as ornamentin the wrong place, while beauty, as some one finely said, is thepurgation of all superfluities. There is a divine economy aboutbeauty; it gives us just what is needful and no more, whereasugliness is always extravagant; ugliness is a spendthrift andwastes its material; in fine, ugliness--and I would commend thisremark to Mr. Wentworth Huyshe--ugliness, as much in costume as inanything else, is always the sign that somebody has beenunpractical. So the costume of the future in England, if it isfounded on the true laws of freedom, comfort, and adaptability tocircumstances, cannot fail to be most beautiful also, becausebeauty is the sign always of the rightness of principles, themystical seal that is set upon what is perfect, and upon what isperfect only.

As for your other correspondent, the first principle of dress that

all garments should be hung from the shoulders and not from thewaist seems to me to be generally approved of, although an "OldSailor" declares that no sailors or athletes ever suspend theirclothes from the shoulders, but always from the hips. My ownrecollection of the river and running ground at Oxford--those twohomes of Hellenism in our little Gothic town--is that the bestrunners and rowers (and my own college turned out many) wore alwaysa tight jersey, with short drawers attached to it, the wholecostume being woven in one piece. As for sailors, it is true, Iadmit, and the bad custom seems to involve that constant "hitchingup" of the lower garments which, however popular in transpontinedramas, cannot, I think, but be considered an extremely awkwardhabit; and as all awkwardness comes from discomfort of some kind, Itrust that this point in our sailor's dress will be looked to inthe coming reform of our navy, for, in spite of all protests, Ihope we are about to reform everything, from torpedoes to top-hats,and from crinolettes to cruises.

Then as regards clogs, my suggestion of them seems to have arouseda great deal of terror. Fashion in her high-heeled boots hasscreamed, and the dreadful word "anachronism" has been used. Now,whatever is useful cannot be an anachronism. Such a word isapplicable only to the revival of some folly; and, besides, in theEngland of our own day clogs are still worn in many of ourmanufacturing towns, such as Oldham. I fear that in Oldham theymay not be dreams of beauty; in Oldham the art of inlaying themwith ivory and with pearl may possibly be unknown; yet in Oldhamthey serve their purpose. Nor is it so long since they were wornby the upper classes of this country generally. Only a few daysago I had the pleasure of talking to a lady who remembered withaffectionate regret the clogs of her girlhood; they were, accordingto her, not too high nor too heavy, and were provided, besides,with some kind of spring in the sole so as to make them the moresupple for the foot in walking. Personally, I object to alladditional height being given to a boot or shoe; it is reallyagainst the proper principles of dress, although, if any suchheight is to be given it should be by means of two props; not one;but what I should prefer to see is some adaptation of the dividedskirt or long and moderately loose knickerbockers. If, however,the divided skirt is to be of any positive value, it must give upall idea of "being identical in appearance with an ordinary skirt";it must diminish the moderate width of each of its divisions, andsacrifice its foolish frills and flounces; the moment it imitates adress it is lost; but let it visibly announce itself as what itactually is, and it will go far towards solving a real difficulty.I feel sure that there will be found many graceful and charminggirls ready to adopt a costume founded on these principles, inspite of Mr. Wentworth Huyshe's terrible threat that he will notpropose to them as long as they wear it, for all charges of a wantof womanly character in these forms of dress are reallymeaningless; every right article of apparel belongs equally to bothsexes, and there is absolutely no such thing as a definitelyfeminine garment. One word of warning I should like to be allowedto give: The over-tunic should be made full and moderately loose;it may, if desired, be shaped more or less to the figure, but in nocase should it be confined at the waist by any straight band orbelt; on the contrary, it should fall from the shoulder to theknee, or below it, in fine curves and vertical lines, giving morefreedom and consequently more grace. Few garments are soabsolutely unbecoming as a belted tunic that reaches to the knees,a fact which I wish some of our Rosalinds would consider when they

don doublet and hose; indeed, to the disregard of this artistic

principle is due the ugliness, the want of proportion, in theBloomer costume, a costume which in other respects is sensible.

COSTUME

Are we not all weary of him, that venerable impostor fresh from thesteps of the Piazza di Spagna, who, in the leisure moments that hecan spare from his customary organ, makes the round of the studiosand is waited for in Holland Park? Do we not all recognize him,when, with the gay insouciance of his nation, he reappears on thewalls of our summer exhibitions as everything that he is not, andas nothing that he is, glaring at us here as a patriarch of Canaan,here beaming as a brigand from the Abruzzi? Popular is he, thispoor peripatetic professor of posing, with those whose joy it is topaint the posthumous portrait of the last philanthropist who in hislifetime had neglected to be photographed,--yet he is the sign ofthe decadence, the symbol of decay.

For all costumes are caricatures. The basis of Art is not the

Fancy Ball. Where there is loveliness of dress, there is no

dressing up. And so, were our national attire delightful in

colour, and in construction simple and sincere; were dress the

expression of the loveliness that it shields and of the swiftness

and motion that it does not impede; did its lines break from the

shoulder instead of bulging from the waist; did the inverted

wineglass cease to be the ideal of form; were these things broughtabout, as brought about they will be, then would painting be nolonger an artificial reaction against the ugliness of life, butbecome, as it should be, the natural expression of life's beauty.Nor would painting merely, but all the other arts also, be thegainers by a change such as that which I propose; the gainers, Imean, through the increased atmosphere of Beauty by which theartists would be surrounded and in which they would grow up. ForArt is not to be taught in Academies. It is what one looks at, notwhat one listens to, that makes the artist. The real schools should be the streets. There is not, for instance, a singledelicate line, or delightful proportion, in the dress of theGreeks, which is not echoed exquisitely in their architecture. Anation arrayed in stove-pipe hats and dress-improvers might havebuilt the Pantechnichon possibly, but the Parthenon never. Andfinally, there is this to be said: Art, it is true, can never haveany other claim but her own perfection, and it may be that theartist, desiring merely to contemplate and to create, is wise innot busying himself about change in others: yet wisdom is notalways the best; there are times when she sinks to the level ofcommon-sense; and from the passionate folly of those--and there aremany--who desire that Beauty shall be confined no longer to the bric-a-brac of the collector and the dust of the museum, but shallbe, as it should be, the natural and national inheritance of all,--from this noble unwisdom, I say, who knows what new lovelinessshall be given to life, and, under these more exquisite conditions,what perfect artist born? Le milieu se renouvelant, l'art se renouvelle.

Product Links

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"The Costumer's Manifesto"
by Tara Maginnis