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17th Century Europe'''Week #5:
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The French Revolution and Empire Periods'''Week 7:
  
17th Century EuropeStep 1:'''
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French Revolution and Empire PeriodsStep 1:'''
  
Read the online "lecture" on dress in the 17th Century below and click on any links that interest you. You are not required to read all the material on all the links, however:
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Read the online "lecture" on dress in the period 1789-1825 below and click on any links that interest you. You are not required to read all the material on all the links, however:
  
Dress in  
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Dress in The
  
==17th==  
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==French==  
  
Century Europe
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Revolution and Empire Periods
  
'''Introduction'''
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This time frame from 1789-1825 is actually several different sub-periods. The first, 1789-1799, the period of , is a sharp transition period. The second 1800-1815 is the time of the French
  
The trend towards an accelerated rate of change in fashion seen in the 16th Century continued into the 17th Century. However the 17th Century is further complicated by a considerable fragmentation of fashion in the West. Mainstream fashion reflected sharpened divisions among Europeans in religion, nationality and class that had been broadened by the wars of the Reformation and by the "enclosure movement" (aka the early part of the Agricultural Revolution).
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[http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0859867.html|Consulate] and  
  
So, for example members of various conservative sects of Protestantism in this period develop "plain dress" (a style that in greatly modified form is still worn by Amish and Mennonite people) as a form of anti-fashion, and conservative clergy preach sermons on the sinfulness of fine dress. (see
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[http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0859868.html|Empire], and is a stable Neo-classical period. 1815-1825 is the late Neo-classical period that shows a gradual shift towards the Romantic style.
  
[[History100pagesLovelockes|17thWILLIAM PRYNNE, The Unloveliness of Lovelockes, London, 1628)]] Conservative Catholics at the Spanish court, on the other hand keep wearing fashions from the previous century well into the 17th Century.
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'''Dress in The French Revolution'''
  
[[File:HistoryStibbert214.jpg]] Spanish Infanta of the 1660's from  
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Dress during this period goes through a massive shift. Late 18th Century women's dress collapses from it's padded and puffed look '''
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Stibbert| Stibbert]] based on a Painting by Velasquez
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[[File:WomenSagesplates1780swoman.jpg]]''' to a thin, often translucent silhouette. As the French Revolution progressed, different women's styles were adopted that appeared to have reference to the revolutionary politics, social structure and philosophy of the time. In the early 1790's, for example, the "English" or man-tailored style was favored as it hinted towards the leanings of constitutional monarchy.  There was a brief fashion forplain dresses in dark colors during the Terror of 1792, but when the Directory took over French fashion again went wild, trying out  fashions in "Greek", "Roman", "Sauvage" and "Otaheti" (Tahitian) styles.
  
Spanish courtiers at the wedding of Louis XIV of France to Maria Therese, the daughter of the King of Spain, in the 1660's are shown wearing stiffened Whisk collars and ruffs, and the poor Infanta is trapped in a huge "French Farthingale" over 40 years after the French dumped the fashion.
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''
  
The dress of the poor is noticeably more ragged in this period, as the "Beggar" engravings of Jacques Callot will attest, because in many parts of Europe the peasantry were being displaced from their homes in large numbers by either the numerous religious wars of the period, or the Agricultural Revolution.
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[[File:WomenHoey'splatesAlagreque.jpg]] Dress a'la Greque (
  
[http://www.bartleby.com/65/pr/Prynne-W.html|PRYNNE, WILLIAM. The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2000]
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[[History100pages18thhoeydress|Hoey]]''
  
'''1600-1620 '''
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The Psudo-"Greek" look proved most popular and was adopted as the standard style in Europe in the late 1790's
  
Mainstream fashionable dress in the  
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[[File:18thcentMen1780sman.jpg]]While Men's Costume in the 1790's also becomes thinner in line, it separates it's style from women's dress by beginning to lose nearly all forms of surface decoration, lace and bright color, as "irrational" and feminine effluvia. This change is slow, but it completely alters men's dress by the mid 19th Century into dull dark uniform dress.
  
[[100pagesTimelinepages1600to1630a|early 17th Century]] began with the silhouette left over from the previous period, stiffened, slashed, be-ruffed, and stuffed. This "Jacobean" style continued with only slight alteration for another 10-20 years in most places, but even from the beginning, there is a slight visible softening beginning at around 1600. First it is only a greater use of soft
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Other major changes include the adoption of trousers from the dress of sailors and the urban proletariat of the French Revolution, the passing of the fashions for wigs and hair powder, and the (very temporary) demise of the corset.
  
[[History100pages17thfabric|fabrics]] to cover the enormous hoops worn by the women, then
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The bonnet is invented as a hat that is meant to look like a Greek helmet, but it quickly is altered in style out of all resemblance to the original.
  
[[History100pages17thlace|lace]] ruffs begin to be starched less, puffs inside slashings are unstuffed, and finally hoops get discarded altogether.
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[[File:RegencyBoehnWienerzeithats1820a.jpg]] Bonnets from "Wiener Zeitschrift", Vienna, 1820 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratHenriiv.jpg]]Henri IV in 1600, Gentleman in the fashion of 1605 (
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'''
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1800to1825a|The Neoclassical Period]] 1800-1825'''
  
'''1620-1640'''
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Probably due to post Revolutionary backlash against female influence in politics, later reinforced by the German Philosopher
  
After 1620 the fashion loses all stiffness whatever, and most ruffs fall into soft pleats, and formerly standing "whisk" collars (like the one seen in Shakespeare's best known portrait) become un-starched "falling collars".
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[http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Schopenhauer.htm| Schopenhauer] (who promoted the view that men were supposed to be rational and women emotional), the sexual dichotomy in dress becomes more pronounced in this era, a trend which continues through the 19th Century. The direction of fashions towards Neo dress for women, and increasingly drab utilitarian dress on men, continue in a steady manner in this very stylistically stable period.  
 
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[[File:HistoryKohler387.jpg]] Lace collar, first half of the 17th Century (Kohler)
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Men's breeches get softer and longer, and the waists of their doublets went higher giving an elongated silhouette. Many men discarded
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[[History100pages17thshoe|shoes ]]in favor of high topped
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[[History100pages17thshoe|boots]]. This is the style people associate with The Three Musketeers of Alexandre Dumas and Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratGentihomme.jpg]] Gentleman in the fashion of 1630. (
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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[[History100pages17thmen|Fashionable men]] wore their hair longer, and it stays long for the rest of the century. Conservative men, especially Protestant clergy, kept their hair shorter--only shoulder length. During the English Civil War the Puritans (and other Protestant religious conservatives) who opposed King Charles I and supported Parliament were derisively called "Roundheads" by their longer haired opponents, and the name has stuck to this day. Londoners were warned by conservative clergy that the sexual confusion caused by young men growing a "lovelock" or long piece of hair, and by women cutting and frizzing hair into bangs was the beginning of a slide into mortal sin.
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'''
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[[File:WomensfashplatesNewCallot1630.jpg]]'''Plate by Callot, 1630
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[[History100pagesHollar|Women's dress]] in the same period (1620-40) underwent a very similar style shift, waists rose slightly above the natural waistline, collars softened, hair softened, and hoops went out in favor of a more vertical line. The main exciting innovation is that women's wrists, and eventually lower arms began to be bared again, for the first time since the end of the Roman period. Folding fans, first imported from Asia in the late 16th Century begin to be locally produced and become the fashion as well.
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''
 
''
  
[[File:HistoryKohler370.jpg]] Pourpoint doublet c.1650 (Kohler)''
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[[File:WomenFashionplates1807.jpg]] 1807
 
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'''1640-1665'''
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1630to1665a|Mid- 17th Century dress]] continued in the softer style, but had a change in the waistline of both men and women by returning to the natural waist. Clothing and all other decorative arts also begin to acquire an excessive amount of ornamentation in what has come to be called the  style.
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The French began a fashion for trimming everything with bunches of ribbon, a style that got taken to the extreme in the early 1660's, when Louis XIV (popularly known as ) reached his majority and started setting the style for men's dress covered in ruffles and ribbons in a style known as "petticoat breeches".
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[[File:HistoryKohler374_1665.gif]] French men's dress 1665 (Kohler)
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Women's necklines dropped precipitously among the fashionable (in warm weather), while remaining thoroughly covered in linen among the conservative middle class.  
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[[File:WomenFashionplates1809fulldress.jpg]] 1809''
  
The most powerful women in the second half of the Century are mainly mistresses, and so the "power" look for women becomes increasingly sexy. A fashion begins, late in this era for "dishabille" or dress that looks like a lady just went for a tumble in the broom closet. Conservative writers continue to decry the sensuous look of fashionable women's dress, but these critics increasingly are outnumbered by Restoration poets like who say "A sweet disorder in the dress/ kindles in clothes, a wantonness.."
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Women's dress locks into a pattern of light colored muslin gowns, high waisted with little puffed sleeves, and psudo-Greek hairstyles, which achieved an apex at the coronation of the Emperor  in 1804.
  
 
''
 
''
  
[[File:17thcentLelyBarbaravilliers.jpg]] Barbara Villiers, Mistress of Charles II''
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[[File:RegencyWomenNapoleonssisters.jpg]] Napoleon's sisters at his coronation.''
  
''
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As the period proceeds, the originally simple lines of these gowns are increasingly decorated with ruffles and puffs, the skirts get puffed out with petticoats, the waist lowers and tightens with corsets, until by 1825 it is hard to see how the style worn was ever imagined to look Greek.
  
[[File:AcarterRestorationladies35_portrait_mrslawson.jpg]] Mrs. Lawson
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[[File:RegencyBoehnParasolvienna1822.jpg]] 1822 Vienna from Max von Boehn's Das Beiwerk der Mode, 1928
  
[[File:AcarterRestorationladies35_portrait_barabracleveland.jpg]]Barbara Cleveland, Mistress of Charles II
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[[File:HistoryV&amuseum32.jpg]]
  
[[File:17thcentLelyDuchessofportsmouth.jpg]] Duchess of Portsmouth, Mistress of Charles II''
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's dress also keeps on a fairly steady course towards increasing dullness. Fashion magazines continue to push men's dress towards foppish extremes, but men who actually count in the fashionable world tend to push for plainer styles. Beau Brummell, the leader of male sartorial fashion in England in this period was noted for wearing only black with a white shirt for formal evening wear, a marked departure from the style of the previous century. Tubular and fitted trousers also move from a radical fashion statement to everyday wear for most men of the upper classes.
  
'''Step 2:'''Click on some of the following links to see some Lely portraits of notable mistresses of the late 17th Century:
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'''Step 2:'''Men's clothing in this era becomes less and less adventurous in style. The few outlets for male fashion expression (boots, hats, collars and neckties) therefore go to extremes. Neckties in this period were especially important. However, as with trying to create any other period style in the present, neckties require a leap of imagination & practical experimentation to get them to look like the images one sees in the past, even with genuine period instructions for tying available . Get a piece of light crisp cloth (muslin or taffeta will work best) about 70" x 10" in size. Then go to
  
[http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lely_sir_peter.html|Sir Peter Lely links on the net]
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[http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~awoodley/regency/tie.html|Regency Neckcloths] or  and try following the wonderfully vague and confusing period instructions for tying it round your (or someone else's) neck. [A better photo of the styles is at
  
[http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/objects/o774.html|Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth]
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[http://www.jasa.net.au/images/neckclth.gif|The art of tying the cravat Demonstratedneckclothitania]] Write an account of what you did, and how you can really make one look like one of the pictures, and post them to your site by the weekend. Take your camera and photograph the results (process your film later this semester, or if you have a
  
'''Step 3:'''
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[[ClassesFashiondressDigitalcameras|digital]] do it and post it now).Some students who have done this in previous classes share their tips below:
  
Continue reading the lecture:
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[http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jlc5f/Costumes/Assign11.htm|Jean]
  
'''1665-1700'''
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[http://members.tripod.com/Jes24601/id34.htm|Jessica]
  
[[100pagesTimelinepages1665to1700a|Late 17th Century Fashion]] underwent another sharp shift where dress became even more markedly vertical in style. Women's sleeves in this period almost never cover the lower arms, a style that continues for another century.
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[http://www.craftycostume.com/regency_tie_reconstruction.htm|Sandy]
  
Menswear takes an important shift during the of the English Monarchy, when Charles II decides to adopt the three piece suit, and shortly all Englishmen follow this practical, straightforward fashion.
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'''This Concludes Week #7's Lesson'''
 
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After Louis XIV goes prematurely bald in the 1670's it also becomes the fashion for men to wear wigs instead of their natural hair. Wigs stay in fashion for men until the end of the next century.
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''
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[[File:HistoryKohler378.jpg]] Wig and Justaucorps (jacket) of rust brown, c. 1690 (Kohler)''
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Women adopt a wired lace headdress known as the Fontage to further heighten and elongate the silhouette in the 1680's-90's, a style that persists into the first decade of the next century.
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[[File:17thcentWomensfashplatesLadyfenwick.jpg]] (Click image for larger version) Lady Fenwick in widows weeds with a Fontage of the 1690's
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Because the political systems in both England and France became more or less fixed in the late 17th Century for roughly the next 100 years (constitutional monarchy in England, absolute monarchy in France), the styles adopted in the last two decades of the 17th Century strongly influence the next century's dress, and the period 1680-1780 is one of the more stable fashion periods in history, undergoing gradual, rather than sudden changes in style.
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'''Step 4:'''While pictures are good for showing how people's dress looked in an era, more often it is text that tells us how they felt about clothing. Then, as now, people got riled up on issues of female modesty, fashion change and cross dressing. Go to '''Links for Further Study:
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[[History100pages17thlinks|17th Century Costume]]'''and choose one (or more if they are short) of the 'contemporary texts' to read. See if you can figure out whether the writer is exaggerating, or being literal, and what "ax" is being ground. Write a short synopsis of the text, and reflections on the attitude towards dress in it, and post it  either to your web page, or to the
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[http://www.egroups.com/group/CostumeHistoryClass|Message Board]
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'''This Concludes Week #5's Lesson'''
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'''Return to  
 
'''Return to  
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[[ClassesFashiondressThr355main|Class Index]]'''
 
[[ClassesFashiondressThr355main|Class Index]]'''
  
[[File:17thcentMensfashionplatesJacobeanman.jpg]] Sir Francis Bacon in early 17th Century Long Gown
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''
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratDamealamode.jpg]] 1. Lady in the fashion of 1605. 2. Lady in the fashion of the end of the reign of Henri IV.(
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''
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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[[File:History100pagesFrenchrevdirect.htm| Costumes Francaise: The Convention & the Directory]]
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratMariedemedicis.jpg]]Marie de Medici (widow of Henri IV) 1613. Lady in formal dress of 1620. (
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratCostumedebal.jpg]] 1. Costume for a ball "a la sauvage", 1796. 2. "Greek" style dress, 1797. (
  
 
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
 
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratPortraitdumarechaldesouvre.jpg]]Portrait of Marshal de Souvre, before 1620, from an engraving of the time. Gentleman in the fashion of 1627 (
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''
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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[[File:HistoryV&amuseum20.jpg]] A dress of the male style in vogue between 1780-95. (
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratElegantsalamode.jpg]] Elegant gentlemen, 1628. The man on the right has a Whisk collar, the man at left has an unstarched "falling" collar.(
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[[History100pages18thv&a|Victoria and Albert Museum]]''
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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''
  
(Baroque Dance)
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[[File:18thcentBoehnJournallady1792.jpg]] French fashion Plate of 1792 ''Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10340_31.jpg]] Woman's costume of the reign of Louis XIII (
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratMembredelacommune.jpg]] Member of the Commune of Paris, 1793 (
  
[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
'''
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[[File:18thcentBoehnMenagerie1800a.jpg]] France 1800 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[File:WomensfashplatesNewCallot1625b.jpg]]'''Plate by Callot, 1625
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1789to1800a|More Costume Timeline Images of 1789-1800]]
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratPersonnagesdequalitealamode.jpg]]Persons of quality in the fashion of 1664, Lady of the court in 1668. (
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[[History100pages18thlinks#French Revolution Period (1798-1800)|18th Century Costume Links: 1789-1800]]
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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[[File:18thcentRevolution1790feb.jpg]]
  
[[File:HistoryStibbert210.jpg]] A Dutch Gentleman in "Petticoat Breeches" of the mid 17th Century from  
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[[File:18thcentRevolution1790june.jpg]]''Images from''
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Stibbert| Stibbert]]
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[[History100pagesFrenchrevplates|Costume Plates of the French Revolution & Empire ]]
  
[[File:17thcentMensfashionplatesHabitofaman.jpg]] Satirical plate showing the excesses of "The Habit of an English Gentleman" of c.1660
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[[File:18thcentWomenSummerdress1794t.jpg]] Images from
  
[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10337_05.jpg]] Mlle. d'Hautefort (
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[[History100pages18thplates90s|Fashion Plates 1790-1800]]
  
[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]
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[[File:RegencyBoehnHamburg1802a.jpg]] Fashions in Hamburg 1802 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratModepourlannee.jpg]] Fashion of the year 1678 from an engraving in the Mercure galant
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[[File:RegencyBoehnWienermode1816a.jpg]] "Wiener Mode", Vienna, 1816 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
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[[File:RegencyBoehnWienerzeit1825a.jpg]] "Wiener Zeitschrift", Vienna, 1825 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[File:WomensfashplatesNewArnoult.jpg]] 1690 French fashion plate by Arnoult
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[[File:18thcentRevolution1802may.jpg]]'' Fashionable Frenchman of 1802 (
  
[[File:17thcentMensfashionplatesSummermans1678.jpg]] Summer dress of 1678
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[[History100pagesFresno|Fresno]]''
  
 
''
 
''
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratNew_pa2.jpg]] Gentleman in the fashion of 1689, (
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[[File:RegencyBoehnRepository1810a.jpg]] English man of 1810 from ''Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]''
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[[File:HistoryKohler471and472_1818.jpg]] Men's dress of 1818. Suit of King Ludwig I, beginning of the 19th Century (Kohler)
  
[[File:h.t]]
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[[File:RegencyBoehn1823journaldesdames.jpg]]Journal des Dames 1823 (Boehn)
  
[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10337_12.jpg]] Mme de Maintenon (Louis XIV's second wife) and
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1800to1825a|More Timeline Images from 1800-1825]]
  
[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10337_15.jpg]] The Duchesse du Maine (
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[[History100pagesRegencylinks|Regency and Empire Costume Links]]
  
[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]
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[http://www.wsu.edu:8000/~dee/REV/|Revolution and After]
  
[http://www.newgenevacenter.org/west/reformation.htm|The Protestant Reformation (Early 1500s to Mid 1600s) - By Miles Hodges]
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Return to  
  
[http://www.newgenevacenter.org/west/enlightenment.htm|The European Enlightenment (Mid 1600s to Late 1700s) - By Miles Hodges]
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[[ClassesFashiondressThr355main|Class Index]]
  
 
==Product Links==
 
==Product Links==
  
[http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/1663/costumes.html|Baroque]
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[http://history1700s.miningco.com/msub34.htm|FrenchThe French Revolution]
 
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[http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/1663/index.html|The Sun King]
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[http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/herrick/|Robert Herrick ]
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[http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ArtistWorks?id=384|Tate Collections | General Collection | Sir Peter Lely]
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[http://www.revilo-oliver.com/Kevin-Strom-personal/Art/gwynne.htm|Nell Gwynne and the Duke of St Albans]
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[http://www.obs-us.com/obs/english/films/mx/rest/top.htm|Restoration ]
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[[File:AmazonBooksFashionindetail17th.gif|link=http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1851772588/thecostumersmani| Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th Centuries]] Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th Centuries
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[[File:AmazonBooksPatternsoffashion15601620.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0896760839/thecostumersmani| Patterns of Fashion : The Cut and Construction of Clothes for Men and Women C1560-1620]]  Patterns of Fashion : The Cut and Construction of Clothes for Men and Women C1560-1620
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[http://members.aol.com/Heraklit1/rousseau.htm|"Rousseauesque"]
  
[[File:AmazonVideoEarlydancepart2.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0871272318/thecostumersmani| Early Dance Part 2]] Early Dance Part 2
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[http://metalab.unc.edu/wm/paint/glo/classicism/| Classic]
  
[[File:AmazonVideoCyrano.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/6305812004/thecostumersmani| Cyrano de Bergerac]] Cyrano de Bergerac
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[http://www.napoleon.org/|Napoléon]
  
[[File:AmazonBooksCardinalricheleuandmaking.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/078670778X/thecostumersmani| Cardinal Richelieu: And the Making of France]]  Cardinal Richelieu: And the Making of France
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[http://search.famsf.org/4d.acgi$Search|Men]
  
[[File:AmazonBooksAnembarrasmentofriches.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0679781242/thecostumersmani| The Embarrassment of Riches : An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age]]  The Embarrassment of Riches : An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age
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[[File:AmazonBooksAckermanscostplates.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0486236900/thecostumersmani| Ackermann's Costume Plates : Women's Fashions in England, 1818-1828]]  Ackermann's Costume Plates : Women's Fashions in England, 1818-1828
  
[[File:AmazonBooksRestorationlondon.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312186592/thecostumersmani| Restoration London : From Poverty to Pets, from Medicine to Magic, from Slang to Sex, from Wallpaper to Women's Rights]]  Restoration London : From Poverty to Pets, from Medicine to Magic, from Slang to Sex, from Wallpaper to Women's Rights
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[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vdIPqsTvYQ&feature=related|YouTube - Women's fashions year by year 1795 to 1948]
  
[[File:MwbhImagesRest0216.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/6305428379/thecostumersmani|Restoration]] Restoration
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[[File:AmazonBooksElegantmadness.gif|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/067088328X/thecostumersmani| An Elegant Madness : High Society in Regency England]] An Elegant Madness : High Society in Regency England
  
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312261969/thecostumersmani|Louis XIV]
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[[File:AmazonBooksEmpirecostumespaper.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0486408132/thecostumersmani| Empire Costumes Paper Dolls]] Empire Costumes Paper Dolls
  
[[File:AmazonBooks1700scenes.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1568581645/thecostumersmani| 1700 : Scenes from London Life]]  1700 : Scenes from London Life
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[[File:AmazonVideo2Prideandprejudicebbcdvd.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/B00005MP58/thecostumersmani| Pride and Prejudice (BBC TV Miniseries) - The Special Edition]]  Pride and Prejudice (BBC TV Miniseries) - The Special Edition

Revision as of 01:01, 23 January 2014

The French Revolution and Empire PeriodsWeek 7:

French Revolution and Empire PeriodsStep 1:

Read the online "lecture" on dress in the period 1789-1825 below and click on any links that interest you. You are not required to read all the material on all the links, however:

Dress in The

French

Revolution and Empire Periods

This time frame from 1789-1825 is actually several different sub-periods. The first, 1789-1799, the period of , is a sharp transition period. The second 1800-1815 is the time of the French

[1] and

[2], and is a stable Neo-classical period. 1815-1825 is the late Neo-classical period that shows a gradual shift towards the Romantic style.

Dress in The French Revolution

Dress during this period goes through a massive shift. Late 18th Century women's dress collapses from it's padded and puffed look

WomenSagesplates1780swoman.jpg to a thin, often translucent silhouette. As the French Revolution progressed, different women's styles were adopted that appeared to have reference to the revolutionary politics, social structure and philosophy of the time. In the early 1790's, for example, the "English" or man-tailored style was favored as it hinted towards the leanings of constitutional monarchy. There was a brief fashion forplain dresses in dark colors during the Terror of 1792, but when the Directory took over French fashion again went wild, trying out fashions in "Greek", "Roman", "Sauvage" and "Otaheti" (Tahitian) styles.

WomenHoey'splatesAlagreque.jpg Dress a'la Greque (

Hoey

The Psudo-"Greek" look proved most popular and was adopted as the standard style in Europe in the late 1790's

18thcentMen1780sman.jpgWhile Men's Costume in the 1790's also becomes thinner in line, it separates it's style from women's dress by beginning to lose nearly all forms of surface decoration, lace and bright color, as "irrational" and feminine effluvia. This change is slow, but it completely alters men's dress by the mid 19th Century into dull dark uniform dress.

Other major changes include the adoption of trousers from the dress of sailors and the urban proletariat of the French Revolution, the passing of the fashions for wigs and hair powder, and the (very temporary) demise of the corset.

The bonnet is invented as a hat that is meant to look like a Greek helmet, but it quickly is altered in style out of all resemblance to the original.

RegencyBoehnWienerzeithats1820a.jpg Bonnets from "Wiener Zeitschrift", Vienna, 1820 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

The Neoclassical Period 1800-1825

Probably due to post Revolutionary backlash against female influence in politics, later reinforced by the German Philosopher

Schopenhauer (who promoted the view that men were supposed to be rational and women emotional), the sexual dichotomy in dress becomes more pronounced in this era, a trend which continues through the 19th Century. The direction of fashions towards Neo dress for women, and increasingly drab utilitarian dress on men, continue in a steady manner in this very stylistically stable period.

WomenFashionplates1807.jpg 1807

WomenFashionplates1809fulldress.jpg 1809

Women's dress locks into a pattern of light colored muslin gowns, high waisted with little puffed sleeves, and psudo-Greek hairstyles, which achieved an apex at the coronation of the Emperor in 1804.

RegencyWomenNapoleonssisters.jpg Napoleon's sisters at his coronation.

As the period proceeds, the originally simple lines of these gowns are increasingly decorated with ruffles and puffs, the skirts get puffed out with petticoats, the waist lowers and tightens with corsets, until by 1825 it is hard to see how the style worn was ever imagined to look Greek.

RegencyBoehnParasolvienna1822.jpg 1822 Vienna from Max von Boehn's Das Beiwerk der Mode, 1928

HistoryV&amuseum32.jpg

's dress also keeps on a fairly steady course towards increasing dullness. Fashion magazines continue to push men's dress towards foppish extremes, but men who actually count in the fashionable world tend to push for plainer styles. Beau Brummell, the leader of male sartorial fashion in England in this period was noted for wearing only black with a white shirt for formal evening wear, a marked departure from the style of the previous century. Tubular and fitted trousers also move from a radical fashion statement to everyday wear for most men of the upper classes.

Step 2:Men's clothing in this era becomes less and less adventurous in style. The few outlets for male fashion expression (boots, hats, collars and neckties) therefore go to extremes. Neckties in this period were especially important. However, as with trying to create any other period style in the present, neckties require a leap of imagination & practical experimentation to get them to look like the images one sees in the past, even with genuine period instructions for tying available . Get a piece of light crisp cloth (muslin or taffeta will work best) about 70" x 10" in size. Then go to

Neckcloths or and try following the wonderfully vague and confusing period instructions for tying it round your (or someone else's) neck. [A better photo of the styles is at

art of tying the cravat Demonstratedneckclothitania] Write an account of what you did, and how you can really make one look like one of the pictures, and post them to your site by the weekend. Take your camera and photograph the results (process your film later this semester, or if you have a

digital do it and post it now).Some students who have done this in previous classes share their tips below:

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This Concludes Week #7's Lesson

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Costumes Francaise: The Convention & the Directory

HistoryQuicheratCostumedebal.jpg 1. Costume for a ball "a la sauvage", 1796. 2. "Greek" style dress, 1797. (

Quicherat

HistoryV&amuseum20.jpg A dress of the male style in vogue between 1780-95. (

Victoria and Albert Museum

18thcentBoehnJournallady1792.jpg French fashion Plate of 1792 Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

HistoryQuicheratMembredelacommune.jpg Member of the Commune of Paris, 1793 (

Quicherat

18thcentBoehnMenagerie1800a.jpg France 1800 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

More Costume Timeline Images of 1789-1800

18th Century Costume Links: 1789-1800

18thcentRevolution1790feb.jpg

18thcentRevolution1790june.jpgImages from

Costume Plates of the French Revolution & Empire

File:18thcentWomenSummerdress1794t.jpg Images from

Fashion Plates 1790-1800

RegencyBoehnHamburg1802a.jpg Fashions in Hamburg 1802 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

RegencyBoehnWienermode1816a.jpg "Wiener Mode", Vienna, 1816 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

RegencyBoehnWienerzeit1825a.jpg "Wiener Zeitschrift", Vienna, 1825 in Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

18thcentRevolution1802may.jpg Fashionable Frenchman of 1802 (

Fresno

RegencyBoehnRepository1810a.jpg English man of 1810 from Max von Boehn's Modes and Manners of the 19th Century

HistoryKohler471and472 1818.jpg Men's dress of 1818. Suit of King Ludwig I, beginning of the 19th Century (Kohler)

RegencyBoehn1823journaldesdames.jpgJournal des Dames 1823 (Boehn)

More Timeline Images from 1800-1825

Regency and Empire Costume Links

and After

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French Revolution

"Rousseauesque"

Classic

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Ackermann's Costume Plates : Women's Fashions in England, 1818-1828 Ackermann's Costume Plates : Women's Fashions in England, 1818-1828

- Women's fashions year by year 1795 to 1948

An Elegant Madness : High Society in Regency England An Elegant Madness : High Society in Regency England

Empire Costumes Paper Dolls Empire Costumes Paper Dolls

Pride and Prejudice (BBC TV Miniseries) - The Special Edition Pride and Prejudice (BBC TV Miniseries) - The Special Edition

"The Costumer's Manifesto"
by Tara Maginnis