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'''16th Century Europe''' Week 4:
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17th Century Europe'''Week #5:
  
16th Century Europe'''
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17th Century EuropeStep 1:'''
  
'''Step 1:'''
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Read the online "lecture" on dress in the 17th Century below and click on any links that interest you. You are not required to read all the material on all the links, however:
  
Read the online "lecture" on dress in the 16th Century below and click on any links that interest you. You are not required to read all the material on all the links, however:
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Dress in  
  
'''Dress in16th Century Europe'''
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==17th==
  
'''Early 16th Century Europe (1500 to 1535ce)'''
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Century Europe
  
Dress in this period covers the transition from the relatively softly constructed linear fashions of the Late Gothic (Northern Europe) and Early Italian Renaissance styles, into the far more rigidly constructed, padded and rather more blocky looking Tudor or Northern European Renaissance style.
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'''Introduction'''
  
Because this is one of the major "transition periods" (like the French Revolution or W.W.I eras) where style took a major shift in a short period of time, there are an unusual number of fashion anomalies as people were rapidly rooting about for the new style. Fashion change in this period becomes so rapid that a pejorative expression forms to describe those dressed in outdated fashions: "they look like like figures in Arras". Arras refers to the figured woven tapestries that reached their zenith in this era. A typical tapestry of this type took seven years from design to completion, and so the dress of human figures in a tapestry was seven years out of date even when the tapestry was brand new.  
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The trend towards an accelerated rate of change in fashion seen in the 16th Century continued into the 17th Century. However the 17th Century is further complicated by a considerable fragmentation of fashion in the West. Mainstream fashion reflected sharpened divisions among Europeans in religion, nationality and class that had been broadened by the wars of the Reformation and by the "enclosure movement" (aka the early part of the Agricultural Revolution).  
  
[[File:HistoryStibbert188.jpg]] Holbein: Henry VIII, Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, and Jane Seymour ''From
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So, for example members of various conservative sects of Protestantism in this period develop "plain dress" (a style that in greatly modified form is still worn by Amish and Mennonite people) as a form of anti-fashion, and conservative clergy preach sermons on the sinfulness of fine dress. (see
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Stibbert| Stibbert]]''
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[[History100pagesLovelockes|17thWILLIAM PRYNNE, The Unloveliness of Lovelockes, London, 1628)]] Conservative Catholics at the Spanish court, on the other hand keep wearing fashions from the previous century well into the 17th Century.
  
Above one can see an example of the rapid alteration of dress that occurred in this era. This image is a copy of a
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[[File:HistoryStibbert214.jpg]] Spanish Infanta of the 1660's from
  
[http://www.artchive.com/artchive/H/holbein.html| Holbein ] painting originally at Windsor Castle that showed
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Stibbert| Stibbert]] based on a Painting by Velasquez
  
[http://www.englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/henry8.html| Henry VIII ] and his third wife along with portraits of Henry's deceased parents, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, based on earlier portraits. Left to right it shows Henry VIII in dress of 1530's-40's, his father Henry VII and mother Elizabeth of York in dress of about 1500-1520, and his third wife, Jane Seymour in dress of the 1530's. The Father and son's dress could hardly be more different from one another, and the women's dress although similar in overall line, is clearly of much more stiff construction in the later dress.  
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Spanish courtiers at the wedding of Louis XIV of France to Maria Therese, the daughter of the King of Spain, in the 1660's are shown wearing stiffened Whisk collars and ruffs, and the poor Infanta is trapped in a huge "French Farthingale" over 40 years after the French dumped the fashion.  
  
This rapid fashion change is typical in any society which is undergoing rapid social, economic, political or religious change. This era occurs at the point in history when the world was discovered to be round,  
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The dress of the poor is noticeably more ragged in this period, as the "Beggar" engravings of Jacques Callot will attest, because in many parts of Europe the peasantry were being displaced from their homes in large numbers by either the numerous religious wars of the period, or the Agricultural Revolution.
  
[http://www.alaska.net/~clund/e_djublonskopf/Flatearthsociety.htm| not flat], when America was "
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[http://www.bartleby.com/65/pr/Prynne-W.html|PRYNNE, WILLIAM. The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2000]
  
[http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/|discovered]" by Europeans, when guns went into general use in warfare, when
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'''1600-1620 '''
  
[http://www.newgenevacenter.org/west/reformation.htm| Protestantism] ripped apart the previously solid Catholic church in Western Europe, when the printing press very suddenly made ideas spread, when plague level
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Mainstream fashionable dress in the  
  
[http://www.allsands.com/Health/Advice/syphilishisto_zkq_gn.htm| syphilis] first ran unchecked through Europe's population, and when a mini ice age weather pattern assailed Europe.  
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1600to1630a|early 17th Century]] began with the silhouette left over from the previous period, stiffened, slashed, be-ruffed, and stuffed. This "Jacobean" style continued with only slight alteration for another 10-20 years in most places, but even from the beginning, there is a slight visible softening beginning at around 1600. First it is only a greater use of soft
  
When people are undergoing these kinds of changes they tend to rapidly adopt and discard fashions. However when change becomes so rapid that it seems highly threatening, the tendency is to choose more and more conservative fashions: fashions that emphasize class differences, fashions that are physically restrictive, fashions that make the wearer look more formidable than relaxed, fashions that contain and control the appearance of natural female sexuality. 16th Century fashions over the whole of the Century do this to greater and greater degrees, the sharpest shift occurs in the "transition period" of the first third of the Century.
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[[History100pages17thfabric|fabrics]] to cover the enormous hoops worn by the women, then
  
Typical features of this transition period are continued linearity in women's dress while stiffening the internal structure, development of the stiffened gabled headdress in England, and the French hood which containerize women's hair, slashing and puffing increasingly popular as decoration, especially in Germany, continuation of parti-colored dress in the beginning of this era, and expansion of the codpiece with extreme padding.  
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[[History100pages17thlace|lace]] ruffs begin to be starched less, puffs inside slashings are unstuffed, and finally hoops get discarded altogether.
  
'''More images from
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratHenriiv.jpg]]Henri IV in 1600, Gentleman in the fashion of 1605 (
  
[[100pagesTimelinepages1500to1535a|Early 16th Century Europe (1500 to 1535ce)]]'''
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
'''Mid 16th Century Europe (1535 to 1570ce)'''
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'''1620-1640'''
  
[[File:HistoryStibbert179.jpg]]'' Landesknecht (German mercenary soldier) with puffed and slashed clothing in  
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After 1620 the fashion loses all stiffness whatever, and most ruffs fall into soft pleats, and formerly standing "whisk" collars (like the one seen in Shakespeare's best known portrait) become un-starched "falling collars".
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Stibbert|Stibbert.]]''
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[[File:HistoryKohler387.jpg]] Lace collar, first half of the 17th Century (Kohler)
  
Puffing and slashing was the perfect visual metaphor for the 16th Century, because it suggests a society that is literally bursting at the seams with new ideas and problems. By mid Century, clothing is so stiffened and tight with the desire to constrict change that some surviving examples appear as though they could stand up on their own.  
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Men's breeches get softer and longer, and the waists of their doublets went higher giving an elongated silhouette. Many men discarded
  
[[File:HistoryKohler275renaissance.jpg]]'' Spanish Doublet, 1570 (
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[[History100pages17thshoe|shoes ]]in favor of high topped
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Kohler|Kohler]]''
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[[History100pages17thshoe|boots]]. This is the style people associate with The Three Musketeers of Alexandre Dumas and Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac
  
Throughout this era clothing gets both tighter and stiffer, while being more and more puffed out with padding and slashings, giving it a dual visual message. Women's dress in this era follows the men's dress into broadness created with stuffing and hoops, so that the wealthy in this era look a bit like walking overstuffed furniture.  
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratGentihomme.jpg]] Gentleman in the fashion of 1630. (
  
[[File:RenaissanceNorrisBook3plate26.jpg]]''
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
[http://www.englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/mary1.html|Mary I] in a "Spanish Farthingale" (
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[[History100pages17thmen|Fashionable men]] wore their hair longer, and it stays long for the rest of the century. Conservative men, especially Protestant clergy, kept their hair shorter--only shoulder length. During the English Civil War the Puritans (and other Protestant religious conservatives) who opposed King Charles I and supported Parliament were derisively called "Roundheads" by their longer haired opponents, and the name has stuck to this day. Londoners were warned by conservative clergy that the sexual confusion caused by young men growing a "lovelock" or long piece of hair, and by women cutting and frizzing hair into bangs was the beginning of a slide into mortal sin.
  
[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]''
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'''
  
Women mainly wore the "Spanish Farthingale", which was a cone shaped hoop skirt, in this era. It is also in this period that waist cinching undergarments (which in theory existed from around 1450, although no earlier examples survive) became boned or otherwise stiffened to the point that they rightly deserve the name "stays" or corsets. Stays in this period cinch the waist, and flatten the breasts into a perfect cone shape, a trend continued into the following century.
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[[File:WomensfashplatesNewCallot1630.jpg]]'''Plate by Callot, 1630
  
'''More images from
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[[History100pagesHollar|Women's dress]] in the same period (1620-40) underwent a very similar style shift, waists rose slightly above the natural waistline, collars softened, hair softened, and hoops went out in favor of a more vertical line. The main exciting innovation is that women's wrists, and eventually lower arms began to be bared again, for the first time since the end of the Roman period. Folding fans, first imported from Asia in the late 16th Century begin to be locally produced and become the fashion as well.
  
[[100pagesTimelinepages1535to1570a| Mid 16th Century Europe (1535 to 1570ce)]]'''
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''
  
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[[File:HistoryKohler370.jpg]] Pourpoint doublet c.1650 (Kohler)''
  
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'''1640-1665'''
  
[http://pweb.jps.net/~mcmasters1/ruff.html|A Brief History of Ruffs]
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1630to1665a|Mid- 17th Century dress]] continued in the softer style, but had a change in the waistline of both men and women by returning to the natural waist. Clothing and all other decorative arts also begin to acquire an excessive amount of ornamentation in what has come to be called the  style.
  
'''Late 16th Century Europe (1570 to 1600ce)'''
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The French began a fashion for trimming everything with bunches of ribbon, a style that got taken to the extreme in the early 1660's, when Louis XIV (popularly known as ) reached his majority and started setting the style for men's dress covered in ruffles and ribbons in a style known as "petticoat breeches".
  
The late 16th Century is commonly and rightly associated with Queen Elizabeth I of England, and so is often referred to as the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth herself was highly aware of how dress could be made to manipulate a public political image, and spent her public life as queen in a series of progressively larger, more decorated and more uncomfortable gowns, until she resembled an auto icon of Late Renaissance design and power.
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[[File:HistoryKohler374_1665.gif]] French men's dress 1665 (Kohler)
  
[[File:RenaissanceNorrisBook3plate27.jpg]] Queen Elizabeth I 1559 (
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Women's necklines dropped precipitously among the fashionable (in warm weather), while remaining thoroughly covered in linen among the conservative middle class.
  
[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]
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The most powerful women in the second half of the Century are mainly mistresses, and so the "power" look for women becomes increasingly sexy. A fashion begins, late in this era for "dishabille" or dress that looks like a lady just went for a tumble in the broom closet. Conservative writers continue to decry the sensuous look of fashionable women's dress, but these critics increasingly are outnumbered by Restoration poets like who say "A sweet disorder in the dress/ kindles in clothes, a wantonness.."
  
This too is the era of the ruff, an impressive combination of two under exploited costume inventions of the previous Century: starch and lace. Ruffs had begun very modestly in mid Century on the wealthy, primarily in France and Spain, but spread rapidly, and grew in size to the end of the Century, and into the beginning of the next.
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''
  
[[File:RenaissanceNorrisBook3plate40.jpg]]'' Queen Elizabeth I (
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[[File:17thcentLelyBarbaravilliers.jpg]] Barbara Villiers, Mistress of Charles II''
 
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[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]''
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Ruffs were made so wide that they often caused eating difficulties for the wearers, so much so that women had the happy thought of splitting the ruff in the front to make meals easier, and frame the cleavage.
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''
 
''
  
[[File:RenaissanceNorrisXlilqueenelizabeth1590.jpg]] Queen Elizabeth I, 1590 (
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[[File:AcarterRestorationladies35_portrait_mrslawson.jpg]] Mrs. Lawson
  
[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]''
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[[File:AcarterRestorationladies35_portrait_barabracleveland.jpg]]Barbara Cleveland, Mistress of Charles II
  
The cone shaped "Spanish Farthingale" of mid Century came to be replaced by the "French Farthingale" which began as a bell shape, and ended up changing into something resembling a mobile tea table.
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[[File:17thcentLelyDuchessofportsmouth.jpg]] Duchess of Portsmouth, Mistress of Charles II''
  
By the end of the 16th Century, upper class European clothing bore not the slightest resemblance to dress of the beginning of the Century, and it stylistically was very far removed from the dress of other cultures. This rapid change, and cultural differentiation through dress happened just as Europe was making it's big push to explore, exploit and colonize the rest of the world. People became so aware of fashion change over time, and national differences in dress that they became very curious about dress in other countries and eras. This therefore is known as the first great era of costume books, when people began to illustrate picture books on dress in other cultures and times. The most notable of these books is Vecellio's
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'''Step 2:'''Click on some of the following links to see some Lely portraits of notable mistresses of the late 17th Century:
  
[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/048623441X/thecostumersmani|Habits of the Diverse Parts of the World ]1590, which has happily been reprinted in full by Dover.
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[http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lely_sir_peter.html|Sir Peter Lely links on the net]
  
'''A short video for you to watch:  
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[http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/objects/o774.html|Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth]
  
[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJgzQmPZUO4|YouTube - Shakespeare's London Elizabethan Fashion]'''
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'''Step 3:'''
  
'''More pictures from the  
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Continue reading the lecture:
  
[[100pagesTimelinepages1570to1600a|Timeline: 1570-1600]]'''
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'''1665-1700'''
  
'''
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1665to1700a|Late 17th Century Fashion]] underwent another sharp shift where dress became even more markedly vertical in style. Women's sleeves in this period almost never cover the lower arms, a style that continues for another century.
  
[[History100pages16thlinks|16th Century Costume Links]]'''
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Menswear takes an important shift during the of the English Monarchy, when Charles II decides to adopt the three piece suit, and shortly all Englishmen follow this practical, straightforward fashion.
  
'''Step 2'''Most people study the history of fashion in order to better replicate the fashions of the past for reenacting or for drama (theatre/TV/movies). Yet at a certain point in designing and making any replication of past clothing, the designer '' must'' make artistic or practical choices that are at times at variance with historical probability.
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After Louis XIV goes prematurely bald in the 1670's it also becomes the fashion for men to wear wigs instead of their natural hair. Wigs stay in fashion for men until the end of the next century.
  
Go to
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''
  
[[Mwbh100pagesRenaimovies|Men With Big Hair: Renaissance Costume Movies]] and choose a film you can rent, watch and review. Write a review of the film you saw addressing all of the following topics:
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[[File:HistoryKohler378.jpg]] Wig and Justaucorps (jacket) of rust brown, c. 1690 (Kohler)''
  
The basic story
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Women adopt a wired lace headdress known as the Fontage to further heighten and elongate the silhouette in the 1680's-90's, a style that persists into the first decade of the next century.
  
The style of the film
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[[File:17thcentWomensfashplatesLadyfenwick.jpg]] (Click image for larger version) Lady Fenwick in widows weeds with a Fontage of the 1690's
  
The extent to which the costumes in the film supported the story
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Because the political systems in both England and France became more or less fixed in the late 17th Century for roughly the next 100 years (constitutional monarchy in England, absolute monarchy in France), the styles adopted in the last two decades of the 17th Century strongly influence the next century's dress, and the period 1680-1780 is one of the more stable fashion periods in history, undergoing gradual, rather than sudden changes in style.
  
The extent to which the costumes appeared to conform to real images from the past
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'''Step 4:'''While pictures are good for showing how people's dress looked in an era, more often it is text that tells us how they felt about clothing. Then, as now, people got riled up on issues of female modesty, fashion change and cross dressing. Go to '''Links for Further Study:
  
Why you thought the costumes were successful or unsuccessful overall.
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[[History100pages17thlinks|17th Century Costume]]'''and choose one (or more if they are short) of the 'contemporary texts' to read. See if you can figure out whether the writer is exaggerating, or being literal, and what "ax" is being ground. Write a short synopsis of the text, and reflections on the attitude towards dress in it, and post it  either to your web page, or to the
  
'''Post your review to your web site by midnight Sunday.'''
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[http://www.egroups.com/group/CostumeHistoryClass|Message Board]
  
'''Step 3:'''
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'''This Concludes Week #5's Lesson'''
 
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Later this semester you will be doing a report on an antique or vintage garment. Begin now by looking for a suitable garment for you to photograph and study. [Several good examples of the kind of report you will be expected to make by semesters end are listed below ] This garment can be a family heirloom, a garment in a local museum that will give you access & photo OK, or something nifty you have bought on
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[http://ebay.com|eBay]. The garment is to be photographed,
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and studied, but not altered or picked apart. The sole requirement is that'' the garment must be older than you are.'' You will need to have found this garment by March 10th.
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[http://members.tripod.com/Jes24601/id83.htm|Claire McCardell Dress]
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[http://www.geocities.com/kakurlander/final.htm|Bustle Era Jacket]
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[http://ashbaugh.freeservers.com/index.html|A Hawaiian Dress]
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[http://funfur.freeservers.com/|1960 Fun Fur Stole]
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Note to all: the garment you choose need not be in great shape. Sometimes one can find out amazing things from stuff that is falling apart. I have bought garments for study that were literally falling apart, because they are very cheap to acquire, I'm not afraid that I might "hurt" a valuable important museum piece, ripped linings show the inner construction of the garment, and everything needed for study reasons, or copying the pattern is still usually there, even when the
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garment is in shreds.
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If you are located in a place where there are no reasonably priced vintage dealers (like me, stuck in Fairbanks) you can begin looking at
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[http://www.ebay.com| eBay] for a bargain. Since you have many weeks to go, you can weed through the expensive stuff, and see if you can pick up something that interests you that is torn, stained, or has some reason most collectors won't pay top dollar for it. Be careful, though, eBay can be addictive!
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'''This Concludes Week #4's Lesson'''
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'''Return to  
 
'''Return to  
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[[ClassesFashiondressThr355main|Class Index]]'''
 
[[ClassesFashiondressThr355main|Class Index]]'''
  
[[File:HistoryQuicheratGrandseigneureerivant.jpg]]'' Grand seigneur writing letters with serving gentlemen in attendance, 1500 (
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[[File:17thcentMensfashionplatesJacobeanman.jpg]] Sir Francis Bacon in early 17th Century Long Gown
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratDamealamode.jpg]] 1. Lady in the fashion of 1605. 2. Lady in the fashion of the end of the reign of Henri IV.(
  
 
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
 
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
[[File:RenaissanceBoehnGeorgegisze1532.jpg]] 1532 (
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratMariedemedicis.jpg]]Marie de Medici (widow of Henri IV) 1613. Lady in formal dress of 1620. (
  
[[History100pages16thboehn|Boehn]]''
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratPortraitdumarechaldesouvre.jpg]]Portrait of Marshal de Souvre, before 1620, from an engraving of the time. Gentleman in the fashion of 1627 (
  
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratElegantsalamode.jpg]] Elegant gentlemen, 1628. The man on the right has a Whisk collar, the man at left has an unstarched "falling" collar.(
  
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
[[00pagesUktourUktour_p35|Musée de Cluny Late Medieval & Early Renaissance Tapestries]]''
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(Baroque Dance)
  
[[File:TourplansImagesLadyandunicornt.jpg]]''
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[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10340_31.jpg]] Woman's costume of the reign of Louis XIII (
  
[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10340_06.jpg]]
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[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]
  
[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10340_20.jpg]] Anne of Brittany and Anne Boleyn, royalty, dressed in early 16th Century gowns. ''
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'''
  
[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]''
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[[File:WomensfashplatesNewCallot1625b.jpg]]'''Plate by Callot, 1625
  
[[File:RenaissanceHeadressesRenlady3.gif]]
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratPersonnagesdequalitealamode.jpg]]Persons of quality in the fashion of 1664, Lady of the court in 1668. (
  
[[File:RenaissanceHeadressesRenlady4.gif]]
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
  
''Two views of the "French hood" as worn in England. (
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[[File:HistoryStibbert210.jpg]] A Dutch Gentleman in "Petticoat Breeches" of the mid 17th Century from
  
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Archive Arts|Archive Arts]]''
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Stibbert| Stibbert]]
  
''
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[[File:17thcentMensfashionplatesHabitofaman.jpg]] Satirical plate showing the excesses of "The Habit of an English Gentleman" of c.1660
  
[[File:RenaissanceBoehn1527sketchwoman.jpg]]Tudor gabled headdress (England)with tails down1527 (
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[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10337_05.jpg]] Mlle. d'Hautefort (
  
[[History100pages16thboehn|Boehn]]''
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[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]
  
by Norris
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratModepourlannee.jpg]] Fashion of the year 1678 from an engraving in the Mercure galant
  
''
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]
 
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[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10340_08.jpg]]Eleanor of Austria, Queen of France, and
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[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10340_24.jpg]] Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Henri II both in mid century styles. (
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[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]''
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[[File:RenaissanceNorrisBook3plate19.jpg]]'' Edward VI (
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[[File:WomensfashplatesNewArnoult.jpg]] 1690 French fashion plate by Arnoult
  
[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]''
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[[File:17thcentMensfashionplatesSummermans1678.jpg]] Summer dress of 1678
  
 
''
 
''
  
[[File:RenaissanceBoehnHolbeinautoport.jpg]] Hans Holbein Self portrait, (
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratNew_pa2.jpg]] Gentleman in the fashion of 1689, (
 
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[[History100pages16thboehn|Boehn]]''
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[[File:AmazonVideoBallerinorendance.jpg]]
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[[File:RenaissanceNorrisBook3plate36.jpg]]'' Charles IX of France 1561 (
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[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]'
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[[100pagesTimelinepages1535to1570a]]'''
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[[File:HistoryQuicheratLouisedevaudemont.jpg]]''Louise de Vaudemont, wife of Henri III, the Duc de Guise, Margurite de Vaudemont and Anne de Joyeuse, from the painting of the wedding of de Joyeuse in the Louvre. (
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[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]''
 
[[History100pagesPicturecredits#Quicherat|Quicherat]]''
  
[[File:RenaissanceNorrisXxxviiqueenelizabeth1587.jpg]] Queen Elizabeth I, 1587 (
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[[File:h.t]]
  
[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]
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[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10337_12.jpg]] Mme de Maintenon (Louis XIV's second wife) and
  
[[File:RenaissanceNorrisXlivmaryfitton1596.jpg]]''Mary Fitton, 1596 (
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[[File:HistoryGreatwomen10337_15.jpg]] The Duchesse du Maine (
  
[[History100pages16throyalsnorris|Norris V.3 pt .2]]''
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[[History100pagesFamouswomen|Femmes]]
  
''
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[http://www.newgenevacenter.org/west/reformation.htm|The Protestant Reformation (Early 1500s to Mid 1600s) - By Miles Hodges]
  
[[File:UafcollectionShoehistMvc-008f.jpg]]
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[http://www.newgenevacenter.org/west/enlightenment.htm|The European Enlightenment (Mid 1600s to Late 1700s) - By Miles Hodges]
  
Venetian Courtesan''
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==Product Links==
  
''
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[http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/1663/costumes.html|Baroque]
 
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[[File:MwbhImagesShakespeareinlov_07.jpg]] Image from , costumes by Sandy Powell (Copyright 1998 Miramax)''
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[[File:MwbhImagesElizabeth2.jpg]]''Image from
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[http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/6305358567/thecostumersmani|Elizabeth], costumes by Alexandra Byrne (Copyright 1998 Gramercy Pictures)''
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[[File:AmazonVideoLadyjanevhs.gif]]
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[[File:AmazonVideoMaryqueenscotsvhs.jpg]]
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==Product Links==
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[http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/food.html|Medieval/Renaissance Food Homepage]
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[http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/1663/index.html|The Sun King]
  
[[File:AmazonBooksWritersguiderennaissanceeng.jpg|link=http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0898797527/thecostumersmani| The Writer's Guide to Everyday Life in Renaissance England : From 1485-1649]]  The Writer's Guide to Everyday Life in Renaissance England : From 1485-1649
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Revision as of 00:00, 23 January 2014

17th Century EuropeWeek #5:

17th Century EuropeStep 1:

Read the online "lecture" on dress in the 17th Century below and click on any links that interest you. You are not required to read all the material on all the links, however:

Dress in

17th

Century Europe

Introduction

The trend towards an accelerated rate of change in fashion seen in the 16th Century continued into the 17th Century. However the 17th Century is further complicated by a considerable fragmentation of fashion in the West. Mainstream fashion reflected sharpened divisions among Europeans in religion, nationality and class that had been broadened by the wars of the Reformation and by the "enclosure movement" (aka the early part of the Agricultural Revolution).

So, for example members of various conservative sects of Protestantism in this period develop "plain dress" (a style that in greatly modified form is still worn by Amish and Mennonite people) as a form of anti-fashion, and conservative clergy preach sermons on the sinfulness of fine dress. (see

17thWILLIAM PRYNNE, The Unloveliness of Lovelockes, London, 1628) Conservative Catholics at the Spanish court, on the other hand keep wearing fashions from the previous century well into the 17th Century.

HistoryStibbert214.jpg Spanish Infanta of the 1660's from

Stibbert based on a Painting by Velasquez

Spanish courtiers at the wedding of Louis XIV of France to Maria Therese, the daughter of the King of Spain, in the 1660's are shown wearing stiffened Whisk collars and ruffs, and the poor Infanta is trapped in a huge "French Farthingale" over 40 years after the French dumped the fashion.

The dress of the poor is noticeably more ragged in this period, as the "Beggar" engravings of Jacques Callot will attest, because in many parts of Europe the peasantry were being displaced from their homes in large numbers by either the numerous religious wars of the period, or the Agricultural Revolution.

WILLIAM. The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2000

1600-1620

Mainstream fashionable dress in the

early 17th Century began with the silhouette left over from the previous period, stiffened, slashed, be-ruffed, and stuffed. This "Jacobean" style continued with only slight alteration for another 10-20 years in most places, but even from the beginning, there is a slight visible softening beginning at around 1600. First it is only a greater use of soft

fabrics to cover the enormous hoops worn by the women, then

lace ruffs begin to be starched less, puffs inside slashings are unstuffed, and finally hoops get discarded altogether.

HistoryQuicheratHenriiv.jpgHenri IV in 1600, Gentleman in the fashion of 1605 (

Quicherat

1620-1640

After 1620 the fashion loses all stiffness whatever, and most ruffs fall into soft pleats, and formerly standing "whisk" collars (like the one seen in Shakespeare's best known portrait) become un-starched "falling collars".

HistoryKohler387.jpg Lace collar, first half of the 17th Century (Kohler)

Men's breeches get softer and longer, and the waists of their doublets went higher giving an elongated silhouette. Many men discarded

shoes in favor of high topped

boots. This is the style people associate with The Three Musketeers of Alexandre Dumas and Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac

HistoryQuicheratGentihomme.jpg Gentleman in the fashion of 1630. (

Quicherat

Fashionable men wore their hair longer, and it stays long for the rest of the century. Conservative men, especially Protestant clergy, kept their hair shorter--only shoulder length. During the English Civil War the Puritans (and other Protestant religious conservatives) who opposed King Charles I and supported Parliament were derisively called "Roundheads" by their longer haired opponents, and the name has stuck to this day. Londoners were warned by conservative clergy that the sexual confusion caused by young men growing a "lovelock" or long piece of hair, and by women cutting and frizzing hair into bangs was the beginning of a slide into mortal sin.

WomensfashplatesNewCallot1630.jpgPlate by Callot, 1630

Women's dress in the same period (1620-40) underwent a very similar style shift, waists rose slightly above the natural waistline, collars softened, hair softened, and hoops went out in favor of a more vertical line. The main exciting innovation is that women's wrists, and eventually lower arms began to be bared again, for the first time since the end of the Roman period. Folding fans, first imported from Asia in the late 16th Century begin to be locally produced and become the fashion as well.

HistoryKohler370.jpg Pourpoint doublet c.1650 (Kohler)

1640-1665

Mid- 17th Century dress continued in the softer style, but had a change in the waistline of both men and women by returning to the natural waist. Clothing and all other decorative arts also begin to acquire an excessive amount of ornamentation in what has come to be called the style.

The French began a fashion for trimming everything with bunches of ribbon, a style that got taken to the extreme in the early 1660's, when Louis XIV (popularly known as ) reached his majority and started setting the style for men's dress covered in ruffles and ribbons in a style known as "petticoat breeches".

HistoryKohler374 1665.gif French men's dress 1665 (Kohler)

Women's necklines dropped precipitously among the fashionable (in warm weather), while remaining thoroughly covered in linen among the conservative middle class.

The most powerful women in the second half of the Century are mainly mistresses, and so the "power" look for women becomes increasingly sexy. A fashion begins, late in this era for "dishabille" or dress that looks like a lady just went for a tumble in the broom closet. Conservative writers continue to decry the sensuous look of fashionable women's dress, but these critics increasingly are outnumbered by Restoration poets like who say "A sweet disorder in the dress/ kindles in clothes, a wantonness.."

17thcentLelyBarbaravilliers.jpg Barbara Villiers, Mistress of Charles II

AcarterRestorationladies35 portrait mrslawson.jpg Mrs. Lawson

AcarterRestorationladies35 portrait barabracleveland.jpgBarbara Cleveland, Mistress of Charles II

17thcentLelyDuchessofportsmouth.jpg Duchess of Portsmouth, Mistress of Charles II

Step 2:Click on some of the following links to see some Lely portraits of notable mistresses of the late 17th Century:

Peter Lely links on the net

de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth

Step 3:

Continue reading the lecture:

1665-1700

Late 17th Century Fashion underwent another sharp shift where dress became even more markedly vertical in style. Women's sleeves in this period almost never cover the lower arms, a style that continues for another century.

Menswear takes an important shift during the of the English Monarchy, when Charles II decides to adopt the three piece suit, and shortly all Englishmen follow this practical, straightforward fashion.

After Louis XIV goes prematurely bald in the 1670's it also becomes the fashion for men to wear wigs instead of their natural hair. Wigs stay in fashion for men until the end of the next century.

HistoryKohler378.jpg Wig and Justaucorps (jacket) of rust brown, c. 1690 (Kohler)

Women adopt a wired lace headdress known as the Fontage to further heighten and elongate the silhouette in the 1680's-90's, a style that persists into the first decade of the next century.

17thcentWomensfashplatesLadyfenwick.jpg (Click image for larger version) Lady Fenwick in widows weeds with a Fontage of the 1690's

Because the political systems in both England and France became more or less fixed in the late 17th Century for roughly the next 100 years (constitutional monarchy in England, absolute monarchy in France), the styles adopted in the last two decades of the 17th Century strongly influence the next century's dress, and the period 1680-1780 is one of the more stable fashion periods in history, undergoing gradual, rather than sudden changes in style.

Step 4:While pictures are good for showing how people's dress looked in an era, more often it is text that tells us how they felt about clothing. Then, as now, people got riled up on issues of female modesty, fashion change and cross dressing. Go to Links for Further Study:

17th Century Costumeand choose one (or more if they are short) of the 'contemporary texts' to read. See if you can figure out whether the writer is exaggerating, or being literal, and what "ax" is being ground. Write a short synopsis of the text, and reflections on the attitude towards dress in it, and post it either to your web page, or to the

Board

This Concludes Week #5's Lesson

Return to

Class Index

17thcentMensfashionplatesJacobeanman.jpg Sir Francis Bacon in early 17th Century Long Gown

HistoryQuicheratDamealamode.jpg 1. Lady in the fashion of 1605. 2. Lady in the fashion of the end of the reign of Henri IV.(

Quicherat

HistoryQuicheratMariedemedicis.jpgMarie de Medici (widow of Henri IV) 1613. Lady in formal dress of 1620. (

Quicherat

HistoryQuicheratPortraitdumarechaldesouvre.jpgPortrait of Marshal de Souvre, before 1620, from an engraving of the time. Gentleman in the fashion of 1627 (

Quicherat

HistoryQuicheratElegantsalamode.jpg Elegant gentlemen, 1628. The man on the right has a Whisk collar, the man at left has an unstarched "falling" collar.(

Quicherat

(Baroque Dance)

HistoryGreatwomen10340 31.jpg Woman's costume of the reign of Louis XIII (

Femmes

WomensfashplatesNewCallot1625b.jpgPlate by Callot, 1625

HistoryQuicheratPersonnagesdequalitealamode.jpgPersons of quality in the fashion of 1664, Lady of the court in 1668. (

Quicherat

HistoryStibbert210.jpg A Dutch Gentleman in "Petticoat Breeches" of the mid 17th Century from

Stibbert

17thcentMensfashionplatesHabitofaman.jpg Satirical plate showing the excesses of "The Habit of an English Gentleman" of c.1660

HistoryGreatwomen10337 05.jpg Mlle. d'Hautefort (

Femmes

HistoryQuicheratModepourlannee.jpg Fashion of the year 1678 from an engraving in the Mercure galant

Quicherat

WomensfashplatesNewArnoult.jpg 1690 French fashion plate by Arnoult

17thcentMensfashionplatesSummermans1678.jpg Summer dress of 1678

HistoryQuicheratNew pa2.jpg Gentleman in the fashion of 1689, (

Quicherat

File:H.t

HistoryGreatwomen10337 12.jpg Mme de Maintenon (Louis XIV's second wife) and

HistoryGreatwomen10337 15.jpg The Duchesse du Maine (

Femmes

Protestant Reformation (Early 1500s to Mid 1600s) - By Miles Hodges

European Enlightenment (Mid 1600s to Late 1700s) - By Miles Hodges

Product Links

[1]

Sun King

Herrick

Collections | General Collection | Sir Peter Lely

Gwynne and the Duke of St Albans

[2]

Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th Centuries Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th Centuries

Patterns of Fashion : The Cut and Construction of Clothes for Men and Women C1560-1620 Patterns of Fashion : The Cut and Construction of Clothes for Men and Women C1560-1620

Early Dance Part 2 Early Dance Part 2

Cyrano de Bergerac Cyrano de Bergerac

Cardinal Richelieu: And the Making of France Cardinal Richelieu: And the Making of France

The Embarrassment of Riches : An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age The Embarrassment of Riches : An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age

Restoration London : From Poverty to Pets, from Medicine to Magic, from Slang to Sex, from Wallpaper to Women's Rights Restoration London : From Poverty to Pets, from Medicine to Magic, from Slang to Sex, from Wallpaper to Women's Rights

Restoration Restoration

XIV

1700 : Scenes from London Life 1700 : Scenes from London Life

This Page is part of The Costumer's Manifesto, originally founded by Tara Maginnis, Ph.D. from 1996-2014, now flying free as a wiki for all to edit and contribute. Site maintained, hosted, and wikified by Andrew Kahn. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. You may print out any of these pages for non-profit educational use such as school papers, teacher handouts, or wall displays. You may link to any page in this site.